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Bio 223 Midterm One: Lecture 1 & 2
Terms in this set (85)
What are the main functions of each of the four Organ Systems we will be focusing on this quarter?
Major organs on Integumentary System are?
Skin, Hair, Sweat glands, Nails
Major organs on Muscular System are?
Skeletal muscles and associated tendons
Major organs on Nervous System are?
Brain, Spinal cord, Peripheral nerves, Sense organs
Major organs on Skeletal System are?
Bones, Cartilages, Associated ligaments, Bone marrow
Briefly define Homeostasis.
All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment.
Describe the mechanism (simple in principle) by which homeostasis is regulated.
Mechanisms to regulate Homeostatic Process, is a response of a cell, tissue or organ to a stimulus, (such as change in environmental conditions). Responses can be:
-Extrinsic Regulation: Controlled by nervous/endocrine system.
-Receptor: Receives the stimulus.
-Control Center: Processes the signal and sends instructions.
-Effector: Carries out instructions.
What is the difference between positive and negative feedback?
In Positive Feedback: The response of the effector to a change leads to a greater change in the same direction, Body is moved away from homeostasis, Normal range is lost,Used to speed up processes.
In Negative Feedback: Self-Corrective, Change is detected, response activated to reverse the change, restore homeostasis, Normal range is achieved, Most common mechanism.
What is an example of Positive Feedback?
Body receives a cut and releases chemicals that begin the blood clotting process.
What is an example of Negative Feedback?
The hypothalamus targets 2 effectors, the muscle tissue lining the blood vessels causing them to dilate and the sweat glands causing them to secrete more sweat.
What are the two layers of the serous membrane (serosa) lining the body cavity? Where is each layer located?
Parietal layer — lines cavity (inner lining)
Visceral layer — covers organ (Outer lining)
True or False: The serous membranes are a type of epithelium known as endoethelium.
FALSE, it comes from mesothelium.
What is gene expression?
Different genes are turned on/off at different times in development of different cell lines. Cells undergo differentiation as they take on their final function.
If we think in terms of a gene being replicated prior to cell division (why does this happen?)
DNA replicates before a cell divides so that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic information.
Why are genes transcribed in the nucleus to mRNA.
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
What is a Gene Product?
A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene. A measurement of the amount of gene product is sometimes used to infer how active a gene is.
What are the four main tissue types?
Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Neural Tissue.
Epithelial tissue and its characteristic features.
Covers external surfaces, Lines internal passageways and Forms glands.
Connective tissue and its characteristic features.
Fills internal spaces and Supports other tissues. Examples are connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissue and supporting connective tissue (bone & cartilage).
· Transports materials
· Stores energy
Muscle tissue and its characteristic features.
Specialized for contraction, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
o Walls of hollow organs
Neural tissue and its characteristic features.
Carries electrical signals from one part of the body to another, detects stimuli, processes information and coordinated response.
Which tissue features cells exhibiting polarity?
Epithelial tissue features cells exhibiting polarity.
What does Polarity mean?
The tendency of living organisms or parts to develop with distinct anterior and posterior (or uppermost and lowermost) ends, or to grow or orient in a particular direction.
What is the difference between cilia and microvilli in epithelial cells?
-Microvilli are the extensions of the plasma membrane containing microfilaments. It increases the surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials.
-Cilia are long extensions of the plasma membrane containing microtubules. There are two types: primary and motile. It acts like a sensor. Motile cilia move materials over the cell surface.
Define the 'lumen' of a hollow organ (or tubular passage).
The inside space of a tubular structure
Example: Artery or intestine.
How is epithelial tissue structurally different than other connective tissues?
It covers external surfaces, lines internal passageways and forms glands.
Consists mostly of cells, Little ECM, life span is only 1-2 days and cells are constantly replace by mitotic division of germinative cells.
It provides physical protection, control permeablility, provides sensation and secretory.
Consists mostly of matrix and cells dispersed in ECM.
Fills internal spaces, supports other tissues, transports materials and stores energy.
What are the differences among the three main types of cell junctions.
-Tight Junctions are b/w two plasma membranes, adhesion belt attaches to terminal web
(layer of microfilaments under cell membrane), prevents passage of water and solutes and in tubes, isolates wastes in the lumen (prevent contact w/basolateral surfaces).
-Gap Junctions: allow rapid communication, are held together by channel proteins, allow ions to pass and coordinate contractions in heart muscle
-Desmosomes are very strong. They utilize: CAMs (cell adhesion molecules), proteoglycans
dense areas complexes w/cytoskeleton, Spot desmosomes, tie cells together, allow bending and twisting, hemi-desmosomes and attach cells to the basement membrane
Which Cell Junction allows passage of ions or permit cell to cell communication?
Which Cell Junction do not permit substances to pass through the cell membranes of adjoining cell?
Which anchor cells together or to a basement membrane?
What are the layers of the basement membrane and which cells synthesize these two layers?
-Clear layer (Lamina Lucida): Thin superficial layer w/fine filaments, secreted by epithelia and barrier.
-Dense layer (Lamina Densa): Thick deeper layer w/coarse filaments, produced by underlying connective tissue and strength and filtration.
Describe the classification of epithelial cells (there are 3 types; each can be simple or stratified).
Simple squamous, Stratified squamous,
Simple cuboidal,Stratified cuboidal
Simple columnar, Stratified columnar
Give an example where each can be found.
Simple squamous: lining heart & blood vessels, alveoli of lungs
Stratified squamous: surface of skin; lining of Throat, mouth, esophagus
Simple cuboidal: Glands; ducts; thyroid gland; portion of kidney tubules
Stratified cuboidal: lining of some ducts (rare)
Simple columnar: lining of intestine, stomach, gallbladder
Stratified columnar: mammary glands, salivary gland ducts, urethra, epiglottis
What is unique about transitional epithelium?
Transitional epithelium: it tolerates repeated cycles of stretching and recoiling without damage.
Ex: urinary bladder, renal pelvis
What is unique about pseudo-stratified epithelium?
Pseudo-stratified: an epithelium that gives a superficial appearance of being stratified because the cells nuclei are at different levels, but in which all cells reach the basement membrane, hence it is classified as a simple epithelium
Ex: lining of trachea, nasal cavity, bronchi
Where are serous and mucous membranes found?
Serous membrane-line body cavities and cover organs, consist of mesothelium, 3 types: pleural (covers lungs), peritoneal ( covers surface of organs), and pericardial (covers heart). Each membrane divided into two: parietal(inner) and visceral (outer).
Mucous membrane: These membranes line the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
What is the difference in function of serous and mucous membranes?
Serous Membrane: Produce and secrete a watery serous fluid, minimal friction between surfaces.
Mucous Membrane: Produce and secrete mucus, protective & traps debris, must be kept moist to reduce friction.
What are the differences between endocrine and exocrine glands?
Endocrine: produces inner secretions, produces hormones and releases them into bloodstream for distribution throughout the body. Ductless, can be on epithelial surface,
Exocrine: produces outer secretions, discharged onto epithelial surfaces, doesn't produce hormones. Uses ducts.
What is a chordate?
A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; they possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.
What are the Chordate's distinguishing features?
Dorsal hollow nerve tube, pharyngeal slits, segmented body muscles, has post-anal tail, has notochord, or a flexible spinal column.
What is a vertebrate?
An animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column.
What are the Vertebrate distinguishing features?
Phylum cordata, sub-phylum vertebrata, an organism distinguished by having a spinal-cord or backbone.
Briefly, what are the 6 stages of vertebrate development?
Neural Crest Cell Formation
Is a sequence of cell division that begins. Immediately after fertilization.
The zygote rapidly divides into many cells, with no overall increase in size. The divisions affect future development, since different cells receive different portions of the egg cytoplasm and hence different regulatory signals.
A cell formed by cleavage of a fertilized ovum.
The cells of the embryo move, forming three primary cell layers; endoderm, ectoderm, and the mesoderm.
What is the name of the superficial layer of cells in the bilaminar embryo?
What is the name of the superficial layer of cells in the deep layer?
What happens to these two layers, bilaminar and deep layer, as the trilaminar embryo forms?
Trilaminar embryo forms--the epiblast becomes the ectoderm and the hypoblast is displaced by the endoderm.
What is the name of the three primary germ layers?
Ectoderm, Mesoderm and Endoderm.
What is the primitive streak?
Cells from the superficial layer enter via the primitive streak and migrate between the two existing layers.
New layer is called Mesoderm
Describe the formation of the notochord.
Notochord formation comes from the differentiation of mesoderm cells after gastrulation and at neurulation.
Which of the primary germ layers contributes to the formation of the notochord?
What is the name of this subpopulation of cells?
A sub-population of surface cells entering the Primitive Streak (mesodermal cells) develop into Chordamesoderm.
What is the significance of the notochord in non-vertebrate chordates?
The notochord persists as a laterally flexible but incompressible skeletal rod which supports body structure during swimming.
What happens to the notochord in vertebrates?
It is replaced by the vertebral column.
True or False: The notochord induces neurulation.
What does the notochord induces neurulation mean?
The process begins when the notochord induces the formation of the central nervous system (CNS) by signaling the ectoderm germ layer above it to form the thick and flat neural plate. The neural plate folds in upon itself to form the neural tube,
Formation of Dorsal Hollow Nerve Tube.
Collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a relatively limited number of functions are called:
Tissue that is specialized for contraction is:
The most abundant connections between cells in the superficial layers of the skin are:
Matrix is a characteristic of which type of tissue?
Functions of connective tissue include:
Establish a structural framework, storing energy reserves, providing protection for delicate organs.
Which of the following epithelia most easily permits diffusion?
The three major types of cartilage in the body are:
Hyaline, Elastic and Fibrous.
The primary function of serous membranes in the body is to:
Minimize friction between opposing surfaces.
What are the four essential functions of epithelial tissue?
1. Provide physical protection
2. Control permeability
3. Provide sensation
4. Produce specialized secretions
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface:
Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands.
Endocrine- ductless glands, secrete hormones directly into surrounding interstitial fluid.
Exocrine- produce secretions discharged onto an epithelial surface through ducts.
Why does damaged cartilage heal slowly?
Cartilage is avascular, so nutrients and other molecules must diffuse to the site of injury.
List similarities and differences between the three types of muscle tissue:
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.
Similarities: actin and myosin interactions produce contractions, calcium ions trigger and sustain contractions.
Differences: skeletal muscles are relatively large, multinucleate, striated, and contract only under neural stimulation.
Cardiac muscles have 1-5 nuclei, are interconnected in a branching network, and contract in response to pacemaker cell activity.
smooth muscles are small, spindle shaped, unstriated, with only one nucleus, and are not under voluntary control.
Six levels of organization that make up the human body:
Atom, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
The increasingly forceful labor contractions during childbirth are an example of:
Failure of homeostatic regulation in the body results in:
A plane through the body that passes perpendicular to the long axis of the body and divides the body into a superior and an inferior section is a:
Which sectional plane could divide the body so that the face remains intact?
frontal (coronal) plane
Differentiation is the formation of different types of cells during development.
What event marks the onset of development?
Development begins at fertilization (conception), the union of a sperm and an oocyte, collectively known as gametes.
Inheritance refers to the transfer of genetically determined characteristics from one generation to the next.
What is the developmental fate of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst?
The inner cell mass of the blastocyst eventually develops into the embryo.
The stage of development that follows cleavage is the
The pre-embryo develops into a multicellular complex known as a
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