What are the long term complications for DM?
CVD, Heart disease, HT, stroke, Kidney damage, Blindness, Neuropathies (Amputation, Impotence, gastroparesis, orthostatic hypotension without reflex tachycardia)
What are the 9 types of insulin?
lispro, aspart, glulisine, Regular insulin, Neutral protamine Hagedorn, detemir, glardine
Which types of insulin can be mixed and how should they be drawn up?
aspart, lispro, and glulisine can be mixed with NPH; draw up short acting first to avoid contamination
What are side effects of insulin?
hypoglycemia, wt gain, atherogenesis, lipodystrophy, allergic rxns
What are oral antidiabetic agent classes?
Sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, 'gliptins, combo products
What are the names of drugs in first gen sulfonylurea?
Tolbutamide, acetohexamide, tolazamide, chlorpropamide
What is unique about metformin?
does not increase insulin secretion, so cannot cause wt gain or hypoglycemia
What are the SE of metformin?
A/N/D/V, decreased absorption of vitamin b12 and folic acid, lactic acidosis (rare)
What is the MOA of thiazolidinediones?
primarily increased peripheral insulin receptor sensitivity but also some suppression of hepatic glycogenolysis (cannot cause wt gain or hyperglycemia)
What are the ADRs of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?
Gi intolerance due to flatulence, cramps, distention, borborygmy (loud bowel sounds)