20 terms

Psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

ambivalence
refers to the idea that one can have both positive and negative responses towards the same thing
attitude
an evaluation a person makes about an object, person, group, event or issue.
behaviour modification
the use of basic learning techniques, such as conditioning, biofeedback, reinforcement or aversion therapy, to alter behaviour
behavioural component (or an attitude)
refers to the actions that we do in response to an object
biological level of explanation
a focus on the biological and chemical processes that underlie behaviour
central route of persuasion
makes the audience of the message think carefully about the message and evaluate it
classical conditioning
a process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response.
cognition
the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning and judgment
cognitive component (of an attitude)
refers to the beliefs we have about an object, person, group, event or issue
cognitive dissonance theory
suggests that if a person persists in behaving in a way that causes cognitive discomfort, the person tends to change their beliefs or attitudes to the behaviour
conditioned reinforcement
the use of a formerly neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to produce a conditioned response
conditioned response
the learned response to a conditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus
a formerly neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to produce a conditioned response
contiguity
a behaviourist concept that states that for learning to occur, the response must occur in the presence of, or very soon after, a stimulus is presented
continuous reinforcement
a schedule of reinforcing every instance of the target behaviour
control group
the group in the experiment who is not exposed to the independent variable
Delphi technique
a research method that uses self administered questionnaires to obtain the opinions of experts in a field of interest. It does not require the experts to be together in the same place
dependent variable
the variable that is used to observe and measure the effects of the independent variable
downward social comparison
when we compare ourselves to someone who is slightly worse off than ourselves
ego-defensive function
a function of attitudes which helps people to protect themselves of the harsh realities of the outside world

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