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23 terms

Pharmacology - Chapter 23

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Endocrine System
The system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity. Secretes directly into bloodstream
Pituitary Glands
the body's master gland, located near the base of the brain, (pea size) secretions help regulate the activity of the other glands in the endocrine system
HGH (Somatotropin)
Human growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bone, increases muscle mass, stimulates the immune system. .
ACTH
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex. Parenteral use - as a corticotropin (injection, topical, inhalation) and used for diagnosis of adrencortical insufficiency
Cortisol
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress (is a stress hormone) by increasing glucose (blood sugar) levels and suppressing immune system function
Adrenal Corticosteroids (produces adrenalin)
Secrete hormones called corticosteroids, which act on the immune system to suppress the body's response to infection or trauma. (relieve inflammation, reduce edema)
Corticosteroids
Hormones secreted by the Adrenal glands that act on the immune system to suppress the body's response to infection & trauma. Uses: 1. Replacement Therapy 2. Anti-inflammatory & immunosupressant properties. "Steroids", powerful drugs that can quickly reduce inflammation and pain.
Corticosteroid Therapy
"Not curative" Act on the immune system to suppress the body's response, relieve the inflammation & reduce swelling. "Tries to suppress" used as supportive therapy for tx in: 1. allergic reactions 2. bug bites 3. poison ivy 4. inflamed joints (Cortisone, Prednisone, Hydro-cortisone used topically)
Thyroid Agents (Tx required for life)
Can be natural or synthetic. Used in replacement therapy for Hypothyroidism caused by diminished or absent thyroid function. Diagnosed with blood test TSH & FT. Tx: Levoxyl (synthetic agent)
Thyroid
Located near the base of the neck. Effects metabolism (if thyroid is low your metabolism is low) Causes fatigue, dry skin, weight gain, irregular periods
Thyroid overdose
Palpitations, tachycardia, sweating, weight loss
Parathyroid
Just below the Thyroid gland Release hormones that regulates the level of calcium in the bloodstream.
Anti-thyroid Agents
Used to reduce (slow down) symptoms of hyperthyroidism in preparation for surgery or radioactive iodine therapy. Tx: Tapazole (a synthetic replacement hormone)
Anti-diabetic Agents
Used to lower blood glucose levels and those with impaired metabolism of Carbs, Fats & Protein
Diabetes Mellitus (Type I & Type II)
DM: Chronic condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the blood glucose
Type I DM (IDDM)
Insulin dependent
Type II DM (NIDDM)
Non-insulin dependent. Controlled w/oral medication & diet. (Two tests of 126 is DM) May need insulin if they fail to maintain good blood glucose levels
Diabetic Coma
Use insulin, administered parenterally (IV)
Hyperglycemia
Elevated blood glucose level. Symptoms (thirst, anorexia, polyuria) Tx: IV fluids to correct electrolyte imbalance - regular insulin added to IV fluids. Interactions: Alcohol, antibolic steroids
Hypoglycemia
Low blood glucose usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet.
Anti-diabetic Agent (Type II)
A drug given orally to treat DM, lower blood glucose levels.
Immunosuppressant
Decreasing the production of antibodies & phagocytes. Repression of immune response
Sulfonylurea
a classification of oral anti-diabetic medication for treating type 2 diabetes; stimulates insulin secretion and insulin action