Criminal Justice Chapter 1-5
Terms in this set (61)
Crime control model
The ultimate goal of this model is control
Critics of the American media argue that the news media have a dual obligation to:
Present news that reflects a more balanced picture of the overall crime problem and reduce their presentation of sensational crimes
In 2002, a total of _______ was spent on civil and criminal justice
An _____ outlines the formal charge or charges, the law or laws that have been violated, and the evidence to support the charge or charges
If defendants are not satisfied with the outcome of their trials, then they have the right to:
If defendants ask for something special, such as a trial, the criminal justice assembly line is:
How much money that person has
Due process advocates recognize that there can be no equal justice where the kind of trail a person gets, or whether he or she gets a trial at all, depends substantially on:
In the case of a misdemeanor or an ordinance violation, a(n) ______ may be held.
Criminal justice officials frequently complain that their jobs are made _____ because of the practice, common in many states, of sealing juvenile court records
Crime control model
When politically conservative values are dominant in society, the principles and policies of _____ seem to dominate the operation of criminal justice.
Cases that are not resolved through plea bargaining or by a jury trial are decided by a judge in a:
Incompetent assistance of counsel
Defendants can appeal their convictions on constitutional grounds. What is not one of the constitutional grounds not mentioned in the textbook?
A(n) ____ is a charging document specifying that an offense has been committed by a person or persons named or described
Charges have been filed
A suspect becomes a defendant after:
Currently, five general types of punishment are in use in the US. What is not one of the punishments in use in the US?
The textbook names three types of disturbances that received calls for police service in the Chicago, Illinois, police study. What is not one of these types of disturbances?
Crime and criminal justice
According to a study by researchers at eight universities, what type of new stories dominates local television news stories?
Which of the following are used to increase efficiency - meaning speed and finality--in the crime control model?
Entering the suspect's charge, name, and perhaps the fingerprints or photograph in the police blotter
The booking process typically involves:
Witness statements; crime scene evidence
Often, an arrest supported by ____ and _____ is sufficient to close a case, especially a less serious crime.
A(n) _____ is expressed as the number of crimes per unit of population or some other base.
Driving under the influence
What offense accounted for the largest number of arrests made by the police in 2001?
They only include respondents who have been victimized within the last 12 months.
What reason does not explain the inaccuracy of official crime statistics?
The substantial capacity test of the American law Institute's Model Penal Code
What test for insanity currently is used in one-third of the US?
A study by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) determined which crimes have the highest annual victim costs. What crime does not belong?
Some behaviors are prohibited by the criminal but, arguably, should not be.
Some behaviors are prohibited by the criminal law but the law is not routinely enforced.
Some behaviors arguably should be prohibited by the criminal law, although they are not.
What are some problems or criticisms with a legal definition of crime?
National Crime Surveys
National Crime Victimization Survey was formerly called:
What was the index crime for which women were most frequently arrested in 2001?
Contains more data on each crime, making to possible to examine crimes in much more detail
Perhaps the greatest and most important difference between the NIBRS and the UCR is that the NIBRS:
To date, most self-report crime surveys conducted in the US have been administered to:
Cloward and Ohlin named three different types of gangs. Which of the following is not one of these types of gangs?
A problem with labeling theory is that it tends to ______ the importance of the official labeling process
Radical theories of crime causation are generally based on the ideas of:
Social disorganization theory<--------Correct
Which of the following theories is associated with the first large-scale study of crime in the US?
Which of the following theories assumes that crime is a product of the class struggle in society?
Low levels of the brain neurotransmitter ______ have been found in impulsive murderers and arsonists.
British or left realism
Which of the following suggests that the solution to all social problems, including crime, is the transformation of human beings, mutual dependence, reduction of class structures, the creation of communities of caring people, and universal social justice?
The research of the Chicago School was based on a model taken from:
Social control theory
From the perspective of _____, people are expected to commit crime and delinquency unless they are prevented from doing so.
What theory focuses on women's experiences and ways of knowing because, in the past, men's experiences have been taken as the norm and generalized to the population?
Miranda v. Arizona<-Correct
Escobedo v. Illinois
Brown v. Mississippi
Arizona v. Fulminante
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court broaden the protection against compelled self-incrimination to cover nearly all custodial police interrogations?
Which of the following refers to the scope of criminal law?
It was the common-plea decisions made by judges in eyre that formed the body of legal precedent that became known as the:
When the entire jury has been selected and sworn in
In jury trials, when does jeopardy attach?
Argersinger v. Hamlin
Gideon v. Wainwright<-Correct
Chandler v. Fretag
Powell v. Alabama
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court extend the 6th Amendment right to be represented by an attorney to indigent defendants facing felony charges in state courts?
Limited the scope of searches incident to an arrest
In 1969, in the case of Chimel v. California, the Supreme Court:
Preponderance of evidence
Which of the following is more than a gut feeling because it includes the ability to articulate reasons for the suspicion?
Which of the following refers to the way in which the criminal law should be enforced?
Bill of Rights
Most of the procedural, or due process rights, given to criminal suspects or defendants in the US are found in:
Trop v. Dulles
Weeks v. US<---Correct
Plessey v. Ferguson
Johnson v. US
In which of the following cases was the exclusionary rule created?
Enslaved people could not hold meetings.
Enslaved people could not learn to read and write.
Enslaved people could not learn skilled trades. <--Correct
Enslaved people could not carry a firearm.
The slave codes held slaves responsible for their crimes and other acts that were not crimes if committed by free persons. Which is not a restriction against slaves?
Protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings<---Correct
Serving summonses, warrants, and various writs
Providing courtroom security and confine and transport prisoners
Investigating crimes and enforcing the criminal and traffic laws of the state
Which of the following is usually not a county law enforcement function
_____ refers to protective services that a private security firm provides to people, agencies and companies that do not employ their own security personnel or that need extra protection.
______ refers to in-house protective services that a security staff provides for the entity that employs it.
Order maintenance or peacekeeping<--Correct
Breaking up a fight, holding back a crowd at a sporting event, or intervening in a domestic dispute before it gets violent are examples of which of the following local police duties?
Internal Revenue Service - Drug Enforcement Agency
Among federal law enforcement agencies in 2002, the ____ employed the largest percentage of women, while the _____ employed the smallest percentage of women.
The basic concepts of American law enforcement and criminal justice originated in:
Fewer consitutional limitations
Lowered citizen contact <---
Better control and attention to the problem
Declining revenues for public policing
A number of factors have triggered the growth of private security in the US. Three are listed below. Which does not belong?
Early American citizens ____ the formation of the first police departments.
Federal agencies such as the FBI operate across the entire nation and even have agenst serving abroad.
Some federal law enforcement agencies have extremely narrow jurisdictions.
A significant function performed by a special category of federal law enforcement officers is university or campus policing.<---Correct
Federal police agencies do not, as a rule, have the peacekeeping or order maintenance duties typical in local policing.
There are three major differences between federal law enforcement and local and state police agencies. They are listed below. Which one does not belong?
Approximately how many local, state, and federal public law enforcement agencies operate in the US?