72 terms

Chapter 11--Industry

Rubenstein and Fellman, AP Human Geography
manufacturing region
a region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. The major US industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the staes of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere
a location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another
bulk-gaining industry
an industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs
bulk-reducing industry
an industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
cottage industry
small-scale industry that can be carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Mass production where every worker does a single task repeatedly. (post: flexible work rules with a team working on tasks)
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850
labor intensive Industry
type of industry in which labor cost is a high percentage of expense
a decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
site factors
location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor and capital. Also physical features and resources.
situation factors
location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
industrial inertia
the tendency for firms to remain where they are, even though the original reasons for location no longer apply (i.e. agglomeration, extended economics, skilled labor, training)
non-basic industry
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
urban planning term for previously developed land; may be contaminated and require cleanup
Hotelling model
(dealt with locational interdependence) the location of industries can't be understood without reference to the location of other industries of like kind; two similar vendors would locate next to each other in the middle of a market area to maximize profit (or beach/street as his model suggests)
mass production
the production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line
least-cost theory
model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
economies of scale
as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down
locational interdependence theory
theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base (beach street)
location theory
a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activities & the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
Export Processing Zone (EPZ)
zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
basic industry
an industry that sells its product outside of the community, bringing money into the community
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems
raw materials
unprocessed extractive or agricultural products, such as mineral ore, lumber, wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables, and fish (think primary sector)
assembly line
in a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product
Alfred Weber
wrote "Theory of the Location of Industries" published in 1909. It is often compared to von Thunen's agriculture model because both models are examples of location theories that explain why economic activity is patterned as it is. He identified points for particular inter-related activities, such as manufacturing plants, mines, and markets (least-cost theory)
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
term describing decline of manufacturing in old industrial areas in the late twentieth century as companies shifted production to low wage centers in the South and West or in other countries
footloose industry
industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms
Varignon Frame
a system of weights and pulleys used by geographers to help determine optimum location. For example, the weights might represent the relative cost of transporting particular goods to or from particular locations, to help a firm decide the most cost effective site to locate a prospective production facility (plane/table solution)
substitution principle
principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore, in industry there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location
raw material orientation
the location of the manufacturing plant in relation to the source of raw materials. While most industries would prefer to locate near their markets in order to save the recurring costs of transportation, some industries - especially those that involve a loss of weight, bulk, or perishability in the process of manufacturing - might prefer to locate near their source of raw materials
market orientation
the location of the manufacturing plant in relation to the market. This would be especially advantageous for bulk-gaining industries.
regional multiplier
a calculation which shows the additional, or indirect, change to an economy as a result of an expansion or contraction by a business or industry. Multipliers can be used to estimate how a new manufacturing plant will impact a community through the jobs it creates, the incomes it generates, and the additional spending that occurs as a result of the initial development activity. In contrast, the multiplier can be used to estimate the economic loss that would occur with the closing of a plant.
primary vs secondary industrial location
(comparative- vs.)Von Thünen only had to deal with primary industries, which are obviously located adjacent to the natural resources (farming, ranching,...). Secondary industries are less dependent on resource location; they deal with more variable costs such as energy, transportation, and labor.
primary industrial regions
represent the strongest (and mostly the original) industrial zones (all in the Northern Hemisphere)--Eastern North America, Western and Central Europe, Russia and Ukraine, Asia (Japan, and recently China and the 4 Tigers)
secondary industrial regions
states and regions that have been intensely developing and urbanizing in recent decades; typically represent more semi-peripheral economies (e.g., Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Egypt, India, Australia).
acid deposition
the accumulation of acids on Earth's surface
acid precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog
active solar energy
solar radiation captured with photovoltaic cells that convert light energy to electrical energy
air pollution
concentration of trace substances at a greater level than occurs in average air
animate power
power supplied by people or animals
biomass fuel
fuel derived from wood, plant material, or animal waste
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
the amount of oxygen used by decomposers to break down a specific amount of organic matter
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
a gas used in fridges and aerosol cans, believed to be responsible for damaging the ozone layer
consumptive water usage
the use of water that evaporates rather than being returned to nature as a liquid
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
fossil fuel
an energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
geothermal energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
greenhouse effect
the process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by gases that form a "blanket" around Earth
just-in-time delivery
shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed
a factory built by a U.S. company in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of the much lower labor costs in Mexico
new international division of labor
Selective transfer of skilled jobs in MDCs to LDCs that still allow skilled jobs to exist in MDCs
nonconsumptive water usage
the use of water that is returned to nature as a liquid
nonpoint source pollution
pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site
nonrenewable energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
a gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation and is found in the stratosphere
passive solar energy systems
solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices
photochemical smog
a thick, brownish haze formed when certain gases in the air react with sunlight
point source pollution
pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source
concentration of waste added to air, water, or land at a greater level than occurs in average air, water or land
post-Fordist production
adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
potential reserve
the amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
proven reserve
the amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
the separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material
refurbishing used products by replacing worn-out or defective components
renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
right-to-work law
a state law making it illegal to force workers to join a union as a condition of employment
sanitary landfill
a place to deposit solid waste, where a layer o earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires and to discourage vermin
vertical integration
gaining control of all the steps used to change raw materials into finished products