a physical voluntary/affirmative act, or omission/failure under imposed legal duty to act, causing criminally proscribed result
-involuntary acts: unconsciousness, sleep, hypnosis, reflex, convulsive, conduct not product of actor's determination
-omission/failure to act when duty exists resulting in criminal liability: imposed by statute, contract, special relationship, detrimental undertaking, causation
SI (special state of mind). D must possess a subjective desire, specific objective, or knowledge to accomplish the prohibited result (FIAT).
- First-degree murder
- Inchoate offenses (attempt, solicitation, conspiracy)
- Assault w/intent to commit a battery
- Theft offenses (larceny, larceny by trick, false pretenses, embezzlement, forgery, burglary, robbery)