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Blood supply to the brain (cva/tia/circle of willis/brain arteries)
Terms in this set (37)
What is the Etiology of a stroke? (why does it occur)
-atherosclerosis (hardening of wall of artery due to plaque build up *usually cholesteral deposits)
-traumatic brain injury
Describe some factors of a TIA?
-no residual sx's after a TIA
-its an incomplete stroke that lasts a few minutes to 24 hours
What are some treatments for a TIA to prevent a recurrence or CVA?
-endarectomy (procedure to clean arteries)
What are the 2 types of strokes?
Within the category there are a couple of types--what are these?
-thrombotic (fatty plaque)
-embolic( blood clot)
The other type of stroke (other than ischemic) is Hemmorhagic--describe hemmorhagic?
- this is when the blood vessel breaks and the blood dispells into surrounding areas
-blood leak into surrounding areas is bad it causes pressure build up and ruins the tissues
-no blood flow after site of hemorrhage
what is a diagnosis strongly related to the cause of a hemorrhagic stroke?
Does a thrombosis develop over time?
When is the most common onset of a thrombosis?
at night in sleep
How often does a TIA preceed a thrombosis?
50% of the time a TIA preceeds a thrombosis
Where does a thrombotic (ischemic) CVA occur:
frequently occurs where vessels turn or divide. origin of ICA/MCA; junction of vertebral and basilar arteries
Where is the common destination for am embolism to occur?
-MCA (middle carotid artery)
So if the common destination for embolism (a type of ischemic) cva is the MCA what would this effect:
-frontal, parietal, upper/middle temporal lobe
- Communication (temporal)
The ACA is the anterior carotid artery--what functions of the brain does this blood supply
the MCA is the middle carotid artery-what functions of the brain does this blood supply?
covers: frontal, parietal and upper/middle temporal lobe
the PCA is the posterior carotid artery--what does functions of the brain does this blood supply?
Language Comprehension (temporal)
Anterior circulatin supples what part of the brain:
front, top and side poortions of the cerebral hemisphere via the internal carotid arteries and their branches
what are the branches of the internal carotid arteries
-anterior cerebral arteries
-Middle cerebral arteries
Basilar Artery supplies:
-cerebellum,(movement, posture, coordination, speech)
brainstem, (RR, HR, bp, consciousness)
and occipital lobes (vision)
who supplies the basilar arteries and posterior cerebral arteries?
Vertebral arteries and their branches (which come from the subclavian)
Carotid arteries branch *most blood supply to what areas of the brain:
-parts of diencaphalon (thalamus, hypothalamus)
Vertebral arteries join to form basilar artery which supply mostly to:
-middle and lower temporal lobes
-part of the diancephalon
what arteries make up the structure " the circle of willis"
hint: there are six
2/6=basilar and internal carotid arterys
2/6= anterior and posterior cerebral arterys
2/6=anterior and posterior communicating artery
intracranial blood supply
extracranial blood supply
what % of ischemic strokes are lacunar in nature?
Which type of stroke has minimal neurological symptoms?
lacunar infarcts ( a type of ischemic CVA)
describe a lacunar infarct:
an ischemic cva that hahppens of larger cerebral arteries and leave a "cavity" that causes brain damage
which has a higher recovery rate: hemorrhagic or ischemic?
hemorrhagic strokes have a higher recovery rate
What are the two types of hemorrhagic strokes studied?
-intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)
Describe ICH (intracranial hemorrhagic)
-this is a hemorrhagic stroke that resuls in blood leaking into surrounding brain tissue; this is bad because the blood in the tissue disrupts the function because the pressure of it
Describe SAH (subarachnid hemorrhage)
- attributed to aneurysms/trauma/atereriovenous formations(congenital)
-account for 5-10 % of strokes
-blood leaks into surrounding CSF (cerebrospial fluid)
what is the FAST acronym
F: facial droop
S:speak-can they speak?
T: time is of the essence-seek medical attn stat!
is a stroke an upper or lower neuron motor injury?
a stroke is an upper motor neuron injury
neurological effects of CVA
A cva is considered an upper motor neuron injury, describe some of what goes on in an upper motor neuron injury:
-cerebral cortex, extrapyramidal tract and cnS effected
-afferent information is processed but inability of eferent
-spasticity can occur
-reflexes can occur
-main motor neuron pathways are damaged
what deficits do we look at with stroke patients (similar to what we usually assess)
What makes up the circle of willis:
-basilar artery +internal carotid
-anterior and posterior communicating arteries
-anterior and posterior cerebral arteries
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