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Airspace regulations and Aviation Charts.
Terms in this set (61)
What are the minimum weather requirements in Class C airspace?
500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horizontal; 3 SM visibility.
What are the minimum weather requirements in Class D airspace?
500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horizontal; 3 SM vis.
What are the categories of airspace?
Regulatory and Non-regulatory.
What are the types of airspace?
Controlled, Uncontrolled, Special use, and other.
What is Class A Airspace?
Airspace over the United states, including that airspace overlying the waters within 12 NM of the coast of the 48 contiguous states from 18,000'MSL to FL 600 excluding the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Operations in Class A airspace must be conducted under IFR, must receive a clearance prior to entering the airspace and unless authorized by ZTC, each aircraft must be equipped with a two-way radio and maintain communications with ATC. The aircraft must have a Mode C Transponder.
What is Class B airspace?
Generally airspace from the surface to 10,000'MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in term of IFR or passenger travel. The configuration of each Class B airspace is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures. An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area and all aircraft so cleared receive separation services within the airspace. For VFR operations, two-way communications equipment and Mode C Transponder are required. For IFR operations, the VFR equipment is required and an operable VOR or TACAN receiver. Class B airspace is encompassed by a 30NM veil. Pilots are required to activate their Mode C transponder.
Do you need a clearance to enter into Class B Airspace?
Yes, an ATC clearance is required to enter and operated within the boundary of Class B airspace. FAR, AR 95-1
What is Class C airspace?
Airspace surrounding designated airports where ATC provides radar vectoring and sequencing on a full time basis for all IFR and VFR aircraft. Class C airspace consists of a controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface or higher to specific altitudes. The design consists of two concentric circles, both centered on the airport. The inner circle has a radius of 5 NM and the outer circle has a radius of 10 NM. The airports inner circle extends from the surface to 4,000'AGL. Airspace between the 5NM and 10NM ring begins at 1,200 AGL and extends to 4,000'AGL. Class C airspace outer area normally has a 20NM radius. Two-way radio communications must be established with ATC prior to entering and operating in Class C airspace. Transponder must be turned on when over flying Class C airspace up to 10,000'MSL.
What is Class D Airspace?
Generally that airspace from surface to 2,500'AGL surrounding those airports with an operational control tower. The configuration of each Class D airspace is individually tailored. Arriving aircraft should contact tower on published frequencies and provide their position, altitude, destination and any requests. Radio contact must be established with the ATC facility providing services prior to entering Class D airspace. Arrival extensions for instrument approaches may be Class D or Class E airspace. As a general rule, if all extensions are 2NM or less they remain part of the Class D. If they are greater than 2 NM, then all extensions become Class E.
What is Class E airspace?
Generally if the airspace is not Class A, B, C, or D and it is controlled airspace, it is class E airspace. Class E airspace extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. Class E may start at the surface, 700'AGL, 1,200' AGL, or 14,500' MSL and above FL 600.
What are the four floors of Class E airspace?
Surface, 700'AGL, 1,200'AGL, 14,500'MSL, above FL 600.
What is the traffic pattern altitude for Army helicopters?
Helicopter traffic patterns at Army heliports and airfields are normally flown at 700'AGL. At other airports, helicopters will avoid the flow of airplane traffic.
What are your weather minimums for uncontrolled airspace below 1,200'AGL?
-Day: 1/2 mile vis, clear of clouds
-night: 1 mile vis, clear of clouds
How are Military Training Routes identified?
Above 1500'AGL used for IFR-Identified by 3 numbers. Below 1500'AGL used for VFR-Identified by 4 numbers. Contact FSS within 100NM to check status of MTR.
What are Special Use Airspaces?
-Prohibited Areas: Flight prohibited for National Security (White House).
-Restricted Area: Unusual, invisible hazards, artillery, aerial gunnery or missiles.
-Warning Areas: Extends 3NM from coast, same as Restricted... NON-REG.
-Alert Areas: High volume of air traffic, no clearance needed.
-MOA: Separate military training from IFR traffic, aerobatic, high speed, no clearance.
-Control Firing Areas: only special use airspace not depicted, no clearance needed.
-National Security Areas: Airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities.
What are Other Airspaces?
-TRSA: The Primary airport is Class D with Class E 700/1200 around airport. TRSA provide radar vectoring, safety alerts, and air traffic advisories. Indicated by solid black lines on VFR sectional. Participation is not mandatory but highly encouraged.
-Temporary Flight Restrictions/Disaster Area: established to protect persons or property.
-Parachute Jump Area: Published in Airport Facility Directory and AP-1.
-ADIZ(Air defense identification zone): Airspace over land and water where ID, location and control of aircraft are required for National Security.
What are the helicopter SVFR minima?
1/2 mile visibility and clear of clouds, unless a higher minima is required at the airport.
Can you fly SVFR in Class G airspace?
No, you must be in Class B, C, D, and E airspace.
When may you fly "over the top"?
Aircraft will no be flown above a cloud or fog layer under VFR for more than 30 minutes unless:
-The aircraft is equipped for IMC flight per table 5-2 (plus AWR 1726 for UH-60M) and not restricted from IMC flight.
-All instrument flight rules and requirements can be met for the remaining flight.
What are magenta flags on the VFR sectional?
VFR Reporting points.
What is a Magenta Circled "R" with a name on a VFR sectional?
What is the Blue Number within a box inside the dashed Blue circle of Class D airspace, on a VFR Sectional?
MSL Altitude of the upper vertical limit of the airspace.
What are the big blue numbers within a specific sector on a VFR Sectional?
Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF): depicts the elevation of the highest known feature within each section of the chart, rounded to the next hundred in MSL.
What are you cloud clearances in Class D airspace?
500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horizontal.
Where can you find the elevation of an airport on a VFR sectional?
Ont he bottom left of the information "box" , just before the runway length.
How can you tell the CTAF frequency of an airport on a VFR sectional?
After the frequency it will have a negative "C" within a circle.
What does "*L" represent on a VFR sectional?
Lighting Limitations exist.
What do the "Tick marks" around the circular airport symbol mean on a VFR sectional?
Tick marks around a basic airport symbol indicate that fuel is available and the airport is tended during normal working hours (M-F 1000-1600 local time).
What does a star at an airport mean on a VFR sectional?
Rotating beacon is operational Sunset to Sunrise
Why are some airports circular and some are the shape of the runways on a VFR Sectional?
Circled airfields indicate a hard-surfaced runway 1500' to 8069'. Noncircular airfields indicate runways greater than 8069' or some multiple runways less than 8069'.
On a VFR Sectional, what does it mean when the airport circle isn't filled in and has no runway lines?
The airfield contains an other than hard-surfaced runway.
What is the magenta circle surrounding Class B airspace on a VFR sectional?
It is the Mode C veil from surface to 10,000' within 30NM of the center of the airport.
How is Class C airspace depicted on a VFR Sectional?
Concentric magenta solid circles, center 5NM ring is surface airspace, 10NM ring lower vertical limit starts at 1200'AGL with both extending up to 4000'AGL but charted in MSL on the sectional.
How is Class D airspace depicted on a VFR Sectional?
A dashed blue circle around the airport, individually tailored radius, normally to 2,500'AGL (charted in MSL on the sectional).
How is Class E airspace depicted on a VFR sectional?
When Class E begins at 700' AGL it is depicted as a fading magenta color, when it begins at a 1200'AGL it is depicted with a fading blue color, however that blue is not shown unless it abuts to uncontrolled Class G airspace.
How is Class C airspace depicted on an ELA?
Shaded blue circle with a dashed blue circle border.
How is Class B airspace depicted on an ELA?
Shaded blue circle with a solid blue circle border.
How is Class D airspace depicted on an ELA?
Just a Boxed "D" after the airport name.
What are the minimum weather requirements in Class B airspace?
3 SM vis, clear of clouds.
How is Class B airspace depicted on a VFR Sectional?
Class B is charted on a VFR sectional by a series of blue circles.
What are the minimum weather requirements in Class E airspace?
-If below 10,000'MSL: 500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horizontal; 3 SM vis.
-If above 10,000'MSL: 1000' below, 1000' above, 1 SM horizontal; 5 SM vis.
What are the ceiling and visibility requirements for Class D airspace?
3 SM vis; 500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horizontal
What type of airspace is Class G?
Class G is uncontrolled Airspace
What are the minimum weather requirements in Class G airspace for Army Rotary Wing Aviators?
-Below 1200'AGL (Day: Clear of Clouds and 1/2 SM vis; Night: Clear of Clouds and 1 SM vis.)
-Above 1200'AGL but below 10,000'MSL(Day: 500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horz +1SM vis; Night: 500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horiz +3SM vis).
-Above 1200'AGL and at or above 10,000MSL(Day and Night: 1000' below, 1000' above, 1SM horz +5SM vis).
What is the major difference between Surface E and Class D Airspace?
Surface E has weather reporting only, Class D has both WX and a control tower.
What is the civilian Airspace Reference?
What is the military airspace reference?
What is considered Basic Cloud Clearance?
500' below, 1000' above, 2000' horizontal
While flying with "VFR on top" on a mag course of 114 degrees and cloud tops at 3500' what minimum altitude should be used?
On a VFR sectional, what is the difference between blue and magenta airports?
Blue airports have a control tower, magenta airports do not.
Where can you find which airports have a Terminal Area Chart (TAC) available.
Front cover of the VFR sectional.
Where are Class B Airspace operating rules found?
On the reverse side of a Terminal Area Chart (TAC).
How much clearance do MEF's provide in mountainous areas? Non-mountainous?
200' in Mountainous, 100' in non-mountainous.
Federal Airways and low altitude RNAV routes are considered Class ___ airspace areas and unless specified, extend up from 1,200' to 18,000' MSL. They are numbered, run between VORs and are typically ___ NM wide.
Class E Airspace
When do you need to read back clearances?
-Ground: runway assignment, hold short instructions.
-Air: read back parts of ATC clearance that contain altitude assignment/restrictions or radar vectors (in same sequence as received), Altimeter settings from ATC.
-At all times: clarify any portions misunderstood.
Explain Enroute Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
Who: Flight Watch.
What: EFAS is a service specifically designed to provide enroute aircraft with timely and meaningful WX advisories pertinent to the type of flight, route, and altitude.
Where: U.S. and Puerto Rico from 5,000' AGL to 17,500' MSL.
When: 0600-2200 daily.
How: Freq 122.0
How would you initiate contact with an EFAS?
On 122.0 "Flight Watch" (if you do not know in which flight watch area you are flying), your aircraft identification and the name of the nearest VOR.
A sever thunderstorm should be avoided by what distance if possible?
On a VFR flight, must you communicate with anyone to depart from or land to an airfield with a magenta segmented line when the weather is 1,000' and 2SM visibility?
Yes. SVFR is required for airports in controlled airspace to the surface. For SVFR to non-towered airfields, call the owning Flight Service Station for clearance.
Pilots should plan the route of flight so as to avoid Restricted Areas by ___ NM unless permission has been pre-obtained.
How are Victor Airways depicted on VFR sectionals?
Victor Airways are depicited as blue lines between VORs on the VFR sectional.
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