Pathology Exam weeks 1-6
Terms in this set (128)
Which is the term for the percentage of whole blood that is composed of erythrocytes?
Packed cell volume
Which type sample of plasma can result in a false increase in the total protein reading?
Which of the following erythrocyte indices measures the average size of the erythrocyte?
Mean corpuscular volume
Which of the following erythrocyte indices measures the weight of the hemoglobin in the average erythrocyte?
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
Which of the following erythrocyte indices measures the concentration of hemoglobin in the average erythrocyte?
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
If a dog has a hemoglobin concentration of 18 g/dL and a red blood cell count of 6 x 109/mL, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin would be which of the following? These are similar to the indice calculations you did in VETT117.
If a dog has a hemoglobin concentration of 15 g/dL and a packed cell volume of 45%, the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration would be which of the following? These are similar to the indice calculations you did in VETT117.
If a dog has a packed cell volume (PVC) of 36% and a red blood cell (RBC) count of 5.0 million/mL, the mean corpuscular volume would be which of the following? These are similar to the indice calculations you did in VETT117.
Which test is not specifically considered a hematologic test but is an important part of the complete blood count and is completed on the refractometer?
Total protein concentration
A reddish tinge to the plasma layer of the microhemocrit tube may be an indication of which of the following?
When counting reticulocytes in cats, punctate reticulocytes are only counted.
A technician needs to calculate a corrected reticulocyte count on a dog with an observed reticulocyte count of 12% and a packed cell volume of 32%. Which is the corrected reticulocyte count for this patient? Use this formula to calculate the answer. Corrected reticulocytes (% retics) out of 100 cells multiplied by the patient's PCV divided by the Normal PCV for that species. Normal pcv for a dog is 45%.
What tests(s) is used as an aid in establishing the diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia?
Coombs and antigolbuin
Which anticoagulant is best known as a glucose preservative?
A veterinarian questions a PCV percentage obtained on a patient and orders a second test. The second test shows a higher PCV than the initial test. What could be the cause of the inaccurately low PCV?
Incorrect ration of blood to anticoagulant
Which Vacutainer tube does not need to be inverted after collection of a blood sample?
Blood collected for a complete blood count (CBC) should be analyzed within what time frame?
Which anticoagulant has the ability to weakly bind calcium and cause false low ionized calcium measurements?
It is not okay to freeze the tube of blood if using within 24 hours.
Within how many hours of collection should serum enzyme activities be determined?
Name the two types of Reticulocytes found in feline blood cells.
Aggregate and Punctate
Which type of white blood cells are usually dark red and increase in numbers in patients with allergic reactions or in parasitic infestations?
Which type of white blood cells' major function is to produce antibodies?
Which is the largest of the white blood cells seen on blood films?
Which erythrocyte abnormality occurs in immune-mediated disorders when an antibody coats the red blood cell?
Which term refers to the presence of macrocytes and microcytes on a blood film?
Which abnormality in an erythrocyte will exhibit a lighter than normal color within the cell?
The most common cause of macrocytosis is immature cells.
Animals with which abnormality almost always have microcytosis that is confirmed by a decreased mean cell volume (MCV)?
Which term is used only when the morphologic abnormality cannot be described using a more specific term?
A dog is hospitalized and the blood smear indicates that the animal is diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). What type of erythrocyte morphology is present on the slide?
A 6-year-old Golden Retriever is presented at the hospital with regenerative anemia. The doctor is considering a diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma. What morphologic changes are most likely present in the erythrocytes on the blood smear?
A dog is presented after a bite from a rattlesnake. Which type of erythrocyte morphologic changes would be expected on the blood smear?
A black Labrador Retriever is in the hospital, and its blood smear shows helmet-like erythrocytes. The veterinarian is considering a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis due to the results of the blood chemistry and blood smear. What type of erythrocyte morphology is present on the slide?
A blood smear is presented for evaluation. The erythrocytes appear to be more heavily stained on one side of the cell. Which type of cells are these?
Which red blood cell inclusion are nuclear remnants seen in young erythrocytes during the response to anemia and are removed as the cells pass through the spleen?
A patient presents with suspected lead poisoning. Which of the following would be a result of this poisoning?
A blood smear from a cat shows dark purple, rodlike structures on the periphery of the erythrocytes. Which are these structures?
A blood smear has erythrocytes that look like targets with a central area of pigment surrounded by a clear area and then a dark ring of peripheral cytoplasm. Which type of cells are these?
A dog receives a blood transfusion, and the subsequent blood smear shows many small, darkly stained cells lacking central pallor. Which type of cells are these?
What type of cell in peripheral blood is indicative of responsive bone marrow in regenerative anemia?
A Labrador Retriever is presented after consuming a portion of a bottle containing penicillin tablets. What type of anemia would be suspected in this patient?
A patient has severe flea infestation and shows signs of anemia. Which would be the best classification of anemia for this patient?
Hemorrhagic or Iron deficiency
What is the most common anemia seen in domestic animals?
An outdoor cat is presented to your hospital and is severely anemic. A blood smear shows the presence of Cytauxzoon felis in the erythrocytes. What classification of anemia would this cause?
Hypothyroid dogs almost never have anemia
If blood loss is acute, what happens to the pcv?
remains normal for a few hours
Which of these is not a sign of RBC regeneration?
What special stain would be used in assessing anemia microscopically?
New methylene blue
Absolute polycythemia is
Increased number of circulating erythrocytes
The destruction of erythrocytes outside the blood vessels is called
Reticulocytes are reported as
The laboratory report indicates that a chronically anemic animal has normocytic, normochromic cells on the blood smear. What would be the most likely cause of this anemia?
Chronic renal disease
The laboratory reports that the cells on a blood smear are hypochromic and microcytic. What type of disorder would you suspect with these findings?
In general, an anemia is considered to be regenerative if the reticulocyte concentration is greater than:
60,000 cells /uL
A technician needs to calculate a corrected reticulocyte count on a dog with an observed reticulocyte count of 12% and a packed cell volume of 32%. Which is the corrected reticulocyte count for this patient? Remember to take the retic count and divide by 100 in your formula.
A dog presents with a tick-borne illness and shows signs of weight loss and anemia. A blood smear shows inclusions in the monocytes and neutrophils. Which is the most likely parasite?
Which types of red blood cells are found in anemic mammals and all birds and reptiles?
Why is it important to always double check a PCV or perform a CBC when a patient is diagnosed with polycythemia?
Patient may be excited or patient may be dehydrated
A canine was presented with a Hct of 35%, Hgb of 12.6g/.dl, RBC of 3.4 and 2% reticulocytes were counted. Calculate the absolute reticulocyte count.
Calculate the absolute reticulocyte count
reticulocyte % x RBC count (mill/µL) x 10
example: A canine was presented with a Hct of 35%, Hgb of 12.6g/.dl, RBC of 3.4 and 2% reticulocytes were counted. Calculate the absolute reticulocyte count.
2 x 3.4 x 10 = 68
Complete set of numeric data in the leukocyte profile along with any noted morphologic abnormalities
Progression of a few immature cells to many more mature cells
Disproportinate relative number of primitve forms and a relative decrease or absence of more mature forms
Decreased concentration of the cell type in blood
A decrease in cell production in a nonspecific manner
Increased concentration of the cell type in blood
Increased concentration of immature neutrophils in blood
Presence of neoplastic cells in circulation
Hematopoiteic cell neoplasm distrubted in blood, bone marrow, and other tissues
Neoplastic processes with lymphoid cell differentiation
Arise from bone marrow stem cell system
Aggregates of endoplasmic reticulum and appear as gray-blue cytoplasmic precipates
Normal progression of nuclear maturation in the neutrophil
Seen in response to parasite burden or allergic reactions
Usually contributed to a steroid response
Interpreted as a response to increased demand for mononuclear cells
Pyometra in dogs
closed cavity inflammatory lesion
The excitement response
fight or flight
One of the most common blood leukocyte responses
Mediated by release of adrenocorticotropic hormone
Canine blood types are preceded by the letters "DEA". What do these letters stand for?
Dog Erythrocyte Antigen
How do transfusion reactions in the cat differ from transfusion reactions in the dog?
More severe in cats
What cat blood type is considered the universal donor?
None exist in the cat
What substance is the final product in the coagulation pathway?
Patients who are deficient in factor VIII do not bleed excessively.
The most important circulating anticoagulant protein is antithrombin III.
The ACT test evaluates all coagulation factors.
A good pre-surgical screening test for von Willebrand disease is a
Buccal mucosal bleeding time
The body's ability to maintain the integrity of the blood and the blood vessels is referred to as which of the following?
The disease that is the most common hereditary coagulopathy is von Willebrand disease.
Which manual blood coagulation test requires a spring-loaded lancet, blotting paper, and a stopwatch?
Buccal mucosa bleeding time
Which manual blood coagulation test requires the use of a vacutainer tube that contains an additive such as diatomaceous earth or kaolin?
Activated clotting time
Which is a coagulation test that evaluates the extrinsic coagulation pathway?
Prothrombin time test
Which of the following is true about disseminated intravascular coagulation?
DIC is a consumptive coagulopathy that is the result of other disease conditions.
Circulatory overload and heart failure can be caused by transfusing blood or plasma too quickly.
Which is the most common acquired coagulation disorder in domestic animals?
Crossmatching blood evaluates for the presence or absence of detectable levels of antigens.
Coagulation tests would be useful for diagnosing
Ethylene glycol poisoning
What test is used to confirm a diagnosis of warfarin (rodenticide) toxicity
One-step prothrombin time
Where are the circulating coagulation factors produced?
Creeping Eruptions can occur with ____________ infection.
A parasite can occur in a host in which it does not usually live and is known as:
Cutaneous larval migrans can occur with ____________ infections.
The term that means living together is
A _____________ is a vertebrate host in which a parasite or disease occurs in nature and is a source of infection for humans and animals.
What is necessary for a nematode to be considered to have an indirect life cycle?
Which is the most common canine hookworm?
Which organ is the definitive host for the majority of parasitic nematodes?
Which parasite commonly found in dogs derives its name from the thin filamentous cranial end and the thick caudal end?
Which parasite of the vascular system is the most important and deadly parasite in domestic animals in the United States?
How much time must pass after a mosquito bite before Dirofilaria immitis can be detected?
In which chamber of the heart does the adult Dirofilaria immitis live?
A litter of puppies is presented that have severe anemia. Which of the following parasites could be the reason for this anemia?
Which is a hookworm that can be a parasite in both dogs and cats?
The host that harbors the adult, sexual, or mature stages of the parasite.
Parasite that wanders into an organ in which it does not normally live.
The study of parasitic relationships
A creature or object that is mistaken for a parasite
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Disease or parasite that is transmissible from animals to humans
One symbiont benefits and the other is neither benefited or harmed
Both organisms in the symbiotic relationship benefit.
Organisms that are "free living"
Parasite that must lead a parasitic existence.
Host that harbors the larval, juvenile, immature, or asexual stages of the parasite.
Which type of parasite is most likely coughed up and swallowed by the host and then passed out with the feces?
The eggs of which of the following Strongyloidea parasites larvate as early as 48 hours after feces is passed?