TExES Core Subjects EC-6 (291)
Terms in this set (119)
phonemic awareness development
Awareness of sounds in a language
Awareness of rhymes
Awareness that sentences can be broken down into words, syllables, and sounds
Ability to talk about, reflect upon, and manipulate sounds
Understanding the relationship between written and spoken language
Rhyming, segmenting sentences into words, blending syllables into words, delete/substitute syllables/sounds from words
the smallest unit of speech that can be used to make one word different from another word.
single unit of sound
In a cvc pattern, the vowel is often a short vowel sound. In a CVCe word, the vowel is followed by a consonant and then the letter e. The e is usually silent and the vowel before the e is usually long. In a CVVC word, two vowels appear between two consonants.
Literal - Readers identify and/or recall relevant information explicitly stated in the reading selection by
- identifying the order of events or a specific event from a sequence of events.
-identifying details such as key words, phrases or sentences that explicitly state important characteristics, circumstances, or similarities and differences in characters, times or places.
Inferential - Readers use information explicitly stated in the passage to determine what is not stated. Readers derive meaning by
-identifying implicit relationships (relationships not directly stated) such as cause and effect, sequence-time relationships, comparisons, classifications and generalizations.
-predicting probable future outcomes or actions.
Evaluative - In evaluative comprehension readers analyze and make judgments about what they read. At this level, readers use evidence from the text to reach conclusions and make generalizations about the text and its wider implications by
-drawing conclusions about the characteristics, values, and habits of human beings.
-drawing conclusions about the author's motivation or purpose for writing a passage or story based on evidence in the selection.
Spelling Development: PRECOMMUNICATIVE SPELLING
"babbling" stage of spelling. Children use letters for writing words but the letters are strung together randomly. The letters in precommunicative spelling do not correspond to sounds. Examples: OPSPS = eagle; RTAT = eighty.
know that letters represent sounds.They perceive and represent reliable sounds with letters in a type of telegraphic writing. Spellings are often abbreviated representing initial and / or final sound. Examples: E = eagle; a = eighty.
spell words like they sound.The speller perceives and represents all of the phonemes in a word, though spellings may be unconventional. Examples: EGL = eagle; ATE = eighty.
think about how words appearr visually;a visual memory of spelling patterns is apparent. Spellings exhibit conventions of English orthography like vowels in every syllable, e-marker and vowel digraph patterns, correctly spelled inflectional endings, and frequent English letter sequences. Examples: EGIL = eagle; EIGHTEE = eighty.
develop over years of word study and writing. Correct spelling can be categorized by instruction levels. For example, correct spelling for a corpus. . . words that can be spelled by the average fourth grader would be fourth grade level correct spelling. Place the word in this category if it is listed correctly.
genre of essay that requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner.
present a fair and balanced analysis of a subject based on facts—with no references to the writer's opinions or emotions.
Phonological awareness is the understanding that speech can be broken into smaller units of sound such as words, syllables, onsets and rimes, and phonemes.
What is the difference between phonemic awareness and phonics?
Phonics involves the relationship between sounds and written symbols, whereas phonemic awareness involves sounds in spoken words. Therefore, phonics instruction focuses on teaching sound-spelling relationships and is associated with print. Most phonemic awareness tasks are oral.
Sequencing Phonemic Awareness Skills
Kinder - 1st grade
Kindergarten - Oral activities in kindergarten focus on simple tasks such as rhyming, matching words with beginning sounds, and blending sounds into words.
1st - In first grade, phonemic awareness tasks are more advanced, focusing on blending ("Blend these sounds together "mmmm-aaaa-nnnn), segmentation ("What are the sounds in man?), and the substitution and manipulation of phonemes
is the recognition of letters and the understanding of sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns. Graphophonemic Knowledge is often referred to as phonics.
starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator.
can be used to effectively diagnose recall and comprehension and to draw on prior learning experiences." They are "questions that tend to be convergent (i.e. they tend to focus on one topic), factual, and often beginning with "what", "where", "when", "how".
A concept map
or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. It is a graphical tool that instructional designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge.
early writing development stages
2-3 Random scribbling
3 Controlled scribbling
3-4 Mock writing
4-5 Writing letters
5-6 Writing Words
writing development stages
Pre - random/controlled scribbling, drawing, mock letters, letter strings, separated words
Early - picture labeling (dog = D), first letter of a word represents the word
letter name - beginning and ending letters
transitional - sound is a constant, sound is a vowel but it is wrong (gres for grass), child hears beginning/middle/end, full sentence writing
conventional - full correct spelling of words
graphic organizers that help students organize information before, during and after a unit or a lesson. They can be used to engage students in a new topic, activate prior knowledge, share unit objectives, and monitor learning.
Column 1: What do you Know about the topic?
Column 2: What do you Want to know?
Column 3: What did you Learn?
Summative assessment is what students tend to focus on. It is the assessment, usually on completion of a course or module, which says whether or not you have "passed". It is—or should be—undertaken with reference to all the objectives or outcomes of the course, and is usually fairly formal. AKA End of the unit chapter tests, state assessments
Formative assessment is going on all the time. Its purpose is to provide feedback on what students are learning:
to the student: to identify achievement and areas for further work
to the teacher: to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching to date, and to focus future plans.
Formative assessment helps teachers determine next steps during the learning process as the instruction approaches the summative assessment of student learning.
GCF = list factors of each, circle the common, grab the greatest common factor
LCM = list the multiples, look at the common multiples,
of an event is the number of ways that the event can occur, divided by the total number of outcomes. It is finding the probability of events that come from a sample space of known equally likely outcomes.
the ratio of the number of times an event occurs to the total number of trials or times the activity is performed.
theoretical vs experimental probability
For example, if a dice is rolled 6000 times and the number '5' occurs 990 times, then the experimental probability that '5' shows up on the dice is 990/6000 = 0.165. For example, the theoretical probability that the number '5' shows up on a dice when rolled is 1/6 = 0.167.
or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.
V, E, F
A vertex is a corner.
An edge joins one vertex with another.
A face is an individual surface.
area of a triangle
the area of a triangle must be one-half the area of a parallelogram
area of a parallelogram
area of square
area of rectangle
area of circle
L * W
volume of pyramid
volume of a cube
volume of Right Rectangular Prism
volume of Prism or Cylinder
1/3 × [Base Area] × Height
Bill of rights
the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
Written by James Madison in response to calls from several states for greater constitutional protection for individual liberties, the Bill of Rights lists specific prohibitions on governmental power. The Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason, strongly influenced Madison.
*Constitution's lack of a bill of rights that would place specific limits on government power. Antifederalists wanted this
perimeter of a rectangle
perimeter of a square
perimeter of a triangle
P = 4s
a + b + c
Kilo, Hecto, Deka, Meter, Deci, Centi, Milli
1 milliliter = 0.1 centiliters = 0.01 deciliters = 0.001 liters = 0.000 1 dekaliters= 0.000 01 hectoliters = 0.000 001 kiloliters
mm to cm
mm to m
1 mm = 0.1 cm
1 mm = 0.001 m
starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator.
sum of all forces acting on an object. A net force is capable of accelerating a mass. For instance, if the wheels of a car push it forward with 5 Newtons and drag is 3 Newtons , the net force is 2 Newtons , forward.
Potential Energy is any type of stored energy. It can be chemical, nuclear, gravitational, or mechanical.
Chemical energy is stored in the bonds between the atoms in compounds. This stored energy is transformed when bonds are broken or formed through chemical reactions.
Nuclear energy is the stored potential of the nucleus of an atom. Most atoms are stable on Earth; they keep their identities as particular elements, like hydrogen, helium, iron, and carbon, as identified in the Periodic Table of Elements. Fission & Fusion
Electric energy is to the kinetic energy of moving electrons, the negatively-charged particles in atoms.
Chemical - mechanical - thermal - heat energy
Think of when you're hungry. When you eat a piece of bread to satisfy this hunger, your body breaks down the chemical bonds of the bread and uses it to supply energy to your body. In this process, the chemical energy is transformed into mechanical energy, which you use to move, and which we'll cover in more detail in a moment. It also transforms it into thermal energy, which is created through the metabolic processes in your body to generate heat. Most of the time, chemical energy is released in the form of heat, and this transformation from chemical energy to heat, or thermal energy, is called an exothermic reaction.
Kinetic Energy is found in movement. An airplane flying or a meteor plummeting each have kinetic energy. Even the tiniest things have kinetic energy, like atoms vibrating when they are hot or when they transmit sound waves. Electricity is the kinetic energy of flowing electrons between atoms.
Methods of heat transfer
conduction, convention, radiation
Heat transfer by conduction
requires some sort of material to facilitate the heat transfer.
Which of the following is the best conductor of heat?
Which of the following is the worst conductor of heat in the group?
The fact that, in general, liquids and gases expand when heated gives rise to
convection currents in fluids due to changing densities.
In which of the following can convection currents be set up?
The process by which aquatic life forms at the bottom of the ocean can get the oxygen they need to live is related to heat transfer by
Convection currents can be caused by
a) weather patterns.
b) unequal heating of the earth's surface.
c) thermal expansion.
b & c
The predominant method of heat transfer that causes a pot of water to boil is
The process by which a pot of water on your electric stove starts to heat is
This type of heat transfer can occur in a vacuum:
radiation - does not require any material
Which color of visible light has the longest wavelength?
Which color of visible light has the shortest wavelength
conduction vs convection
Convection is the transfer of energy by movement of a medium, whereas radiation is the transfer of energy by, well, thermal radiation. Conduction also requires a medium, but, again, it is a fundamentally different mechanism than either convection or radiation; in this case it is the transfer of energy through a medium.
conduction = direct contact, touching a pot, using a poker to a fire, cheese melting on a burger,
convection = placing hands over fire, air movement in a home, boiling water -- air/water
Commensalism is a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped.
-One animal attaching itself to another for transportation such as barnacles attach to shells or whales or a shrimp riding on a sea slugs. (housing)
Parasitism - One organism, usually physically smaller of the two (the parasite) benefits and the other (the host) is harmed. ticks and fleas that live in animal fur/mosquitos
mutualism Both species benefit from the interaction.
-flowers and their pollinators, bird and animals eat berries from plants which helps disperse seeds
Predation - one eats another (Herbivores eat plants. Carnivores eats animals.) enhances
fitness of predator but reduces fitness of prey
gases in Earth's atmosphere
Nitrogen - 78 percent.
Oxygen - 21 percent.
Argon - 0.93 percent.
Carbon dioxide - 0.038 percent.
result of the earth's rotation. As air moves from high to low pressure in the northern hemisphere, it is deflected to the right by the Coriolis force.
Where the G-clef is placed on the second line of the stave, it is called the treble clef.
Where the F-clef is placed on the fourth line, it is called the bass clef. This is the only F-clef used today so that the terms "F-clef" and "bass clef" are often regarded as synonymous.
lines and spaces of the grand staff
staff - foundation upon which notes are drawn
clefs - assign individual notes to certain spaces/lines
grand staff = 11 lines. middle C
The Kodaly Method is a way of developing musical skills and teaching musical concepts beginning in very young children. This method uses folk songs, Curwen hand signs, pictures, movable-do, rhythm symbols and syllables.
Proximodistal development is a pattern of growth observed in very young children where parts of the body closest to the trunk develop motor skills before parts of the body further away. Simply stated, gross motor skills like waving an arm develop before fine motor skills like writing legibly. The classic example is a child learning to move her shoulders before learning to control fine finger movement.
What is PROXIMODISTAL DEVELOPMENT? definition of PROXIMODISTAL DEVELOPMENT (Psychology Dictionary)
Brain, Body, Behavior Connections, celebrates a renewed and revitalized interest in the study of motor development.
the trend of infants learning to use their upper limbs before their lower limbs.
Oral language and Literacy development
Supporting young children's language and literacy development has long been considered a practice that yields strong readers and writers later in life.
anything to the 0 power
A prime number
A prime number is a natural number greater than one that has only two factors: itself and one.
1 is not a prime number
0 in denominator
3 dimensional shapes
2 dimensional shapes
cylinder, pyramid, cone
was a Texas politician, poet, diplomat and soldier who was a leading Texas political figure during the Texas Republic era. He was the second President of the Republic of Texas after David G. Burnet (1836 as ad-interim president) and Sam Houston. Wanted Texas to be its own nation "Texas nationalism" his leadership led to annexation of texas to the United States
Which of the following is a way for a bill to become law without the president's signature?
The president cannot sign the bill for ten days and then it automatically becomes law.
sight words graphophenomic knowledge
carbon dioxide into atmosphere
Decomposers break down the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert the carbon to carbon dioxide. This process releases carbon back into the atmosphere.
Texas secession from the US
The U.S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 2, 1861 and joined the confederate states
was an American politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the United States as a constituent state. His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico. The only American to be elected governor of two states (as opposed to territories or indirect selection), he was also the only governor within a future Confederate state to oppose secession (which led to the outbreak of the American Civil War) and to refuse an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, a decision that led to his removal from office by the Texas secession convention.
Children with print awareness understand that when adults read a book, what they say is linked to the words on the page, rather than to the pictures in the book. Print awareness is understanding that print is organized in a particular way — for example, knowing that print is read from left to right and top to bottom.
refers to the sound relationship between the orthography (symbols) and phonology (sounds) of a language. It is an understanding of the symbols in the language; how they work, their patterns, and the sounds they represent.
phonological awareness refers to the ability to recognize that words are made up of a variety of sound units.
refers to the ability to see a word and read it quickly, with little to no effort at all. This includes knowing how to pronounce it and it's meaning
the investigation is designed to observe and describe what occurs naturally
Stephen F. Austin
Bringing the first American settlers to Texas
The Texas Constitution sets up an Executive Department that includes specific powers for the Governor and all of the following except:
commissioner of education
Republic of texas
When the delegates to the Convention of 1836 adopted the Texas Constitution they created a new republic. A republic is a type of democracy in which the power is held by representatives elected to carry out the wishes of the majority of the citizens. Texas functioned as an independent republic until December 29, 1845, when Texas became the twenty-eighth state.
The Convention of 1836 approved the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836, and then members spent two weeks drafting a constitution to guide the government of the new republic.
The government of the newly created Republic consisted of three branches: an executive branch that carried out the laws (including a governor as executive), a legislative branch which made the laws (the state congress), and a judicial branch which interpreted the law and ruled on offenses (the Texas courts).
Texas Independence Day
On March 2, 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico and established an interim government for the Republic of Texas. Following the victory at San Jacinto in April, a permanent government was formed.
Battle of San Jacinto
At the Battle of San Jacinto Texans defeated the Mexican forces and captured General Santa Anna. In the Treaty of Velasco Santa Anna agreed to stop fighting the Texans and to support the independence of Texas.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation were adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the American Revolution. They provided guidance to government for seven years and gave Congress the authority to make laws and to draw up treaties with other nations.
Bill of Rights
The First Amendment protects several fundamental rights of U.S. citizens: freedom of religion, of speech, of the press, to assemble, and to petition.
The next seven amendments guarantee other freedoms including the right to a fair trial and the right to bear arms. Homes cannot be searched without reason, citizens should not be expected to house troops during peacetime, and those accused of crimes should be treated fairly before the law.
The last two amendments further limit national power by granting to the states all powers not specifically assigned by the U.S. Constitution to the national government.
The U.S. Congress is a bicameral legislature including the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representation is proportional to each state's population in the House of Representatives while states have equal representation in the Senate. The decennial census determines the number of representatives the citizens of a state can elect to the House. The total number is limited to 435. Each state elects two representatives to the Senate.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It declared the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. The committee appointed to write the Declaration of Independence included Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson.
A non-renewable resource is a finite resource that cannot be replaced once it is used (e.g. fossil fuels, minerals).
A renewable resource is a resource that can be regenerated (e.g., fish, timber, soil).
Sight words are words that a person must be taught to recognize on sight because they cannot be sounded out using the principles of phonics (or because they are used so frequently we must learn to recognize them on sight in order for our reading to be fluent). It would be difficult for children to sound out a word beginning with th since the two letters form a sound that is completely different from the sounds of the individual letters. This is also true of the word eight in which the gh is not sounded at all and in which the e and the i also have a different sound together than they would separately.
Sediments subjected to intense pressure over thousands of years form sedimentary rock. Rock #1 is described as being formed from the combination of different materials under pressure. The term lithification in the diagram refers to the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
bottoms of lakes/oceans & limestone, sandstone, mudstone, greywacke, chalk, coal, claystone and flint.
cooling from magma
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have morphed from another kind of rock over a period of time due to stress, plate tectonics, etc.
When the moon moves between the sun and earth and blocks the sun's light from view on the earth that is called a solar eclipse.
Which of the above added the largest blocks of land to the U.S.?
annexation of texas, louisiana purchase, treaty with great britain
distance around =
surface enclosed/total =
annexation of texas
was the 1845 incorporation of the Republic of Texas into the United States of America, which was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845.
texas becoming a republic
was an independent sovereign country in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s. The United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory
separation of powers
There are three distinct branches in this form of government: legislative, executive and judicial branch. The separation of powers allows no single branch to assume all the power for itself thus making sure that there is no tyranny. For example, the congress can veto bills that the president comes up with if they feel that it is not what their constituents want. In other words, separation of power creates checks and balances that assures people that it won't be possible for any branch or faction to go against the will of the majority.
LG is an outline where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not allowed by law, usually in a written Constitution. It is closely related to libertarianism, classical liberalism, and some tendencies of conservatism in the United States.
sovereignty of the people's rule is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
ended the american revolution
treaty of paris
fought against the creation of a strong national government; more concerned about individual rights than electing a president
congress has __ voting members
__ representatives and __ senators
Congress has 535 voting members: 435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Senator = 6 years and 1/3 is elected every two years.
This compromise settled the differences between North and South over the issue of counting slaves towards states' population.
stephen f austin
first settlers to TEXAS
declaration of independence written & authors
The Declaration of Independence wasn't signed on July 4, 1776. On July 1, 1776, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, and on the following day 12 of the 13 colonies voted in favor of Richard Henry Lee's motion for independence.
Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, John Adams, Robert R. Livingston
Constitution written & authors
"we the people" It was signed on September 17, 1787.
Because many of James Madison's ideas made their way into the Constitution, he is often referred to as the "Father of the Constitution." Indeed, he was a driving force of the convention throughout the summer of 1787, and his notes of the deliberations have provided valuable insights into the proceedings.
constitution vs declaration of independence
D of I -- It was a list of grievances against the king of England intended to justify separation from British rule.
C -- It was a charter of government that came to be ratified by the states, and it continues to be the supreme law of the land.
Both signed in Philadelphia aka Independence hall
constitution go into effect...
The Constitution did not go into effect the moment it was signed by the delegates. It needed to be approved by the people through the ratification process. Article VII of the Constitution established the process for ratification, by simply stating that. On June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify; and the Confederation Congress established March 4, 1789, as the date to begin operating a new government under the Constitution.
pyramid, cylinder, cone