Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Psych 19 Quiz 2
Terms in this set (91)
What theory is Erik Erickson associated with?
1. Growth occurs throughout the lifespan
2. individual lives show continuity and change
3. we need to understand the whole person
4. behavior occurs in a social context
5. people are active participants in their own development
What are the 5 assumptions of the psycho-social theory?
1. 11 stages of development
2. developmental tasks
3. psycho-social crisis
4. central process for resolving crisis
5. radius of significant relationships
6. coping behavior
What are the 6 organizing principles of the psycho-social theory?
conception to birth
prenatal development ages
no issue, no resolution, no coping strategy
prenatal issue, resolution, and coping strategy
birth to 2 years
infancy development age
issue: trust vs. mistrust
resolution: mutuality (caregiver)
coping strategy: hope/withdrawal
infancy issue, resolution, and coping strategy
2 to 4 years
toddler-hood development age
issue: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
coping strategy: will/compulsion
toddler-hood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
4 to 6 years
early childhood development age
issue: initiative vs. guilt
coping strategy: purpose/inhibition
early childhood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
6 to 12 years
middle childhood development age
issue: industry vs. inferiority
coping strategy: competence/inertia
middle childhood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
12 to 18 years
early adolescence development age
issue: group identity vs. alienation
resolution: peer pressure
coping strategy: fidelity to others/dissociation
early adolescence issue, resolution, and coping strategy
18 to 24 years
late adolescence development age
issue: individual identity vs. confusion
resolution: role experimentation
coping strategy: fidelity to values/repudiation
late adolescence issue, resolution, and coping strategy
24 to 34 years
early adulthood development age
issue: intimacy vs. isolation
coping strategy: love/exclusivity
early adulthood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
34 to 60 years
middle adulthood development age
issue: generativity vs. stagnation
resolution: person-environment fit and creativity
coping strategy: care/rejectivity
middle adulthood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
60 to 75 years
later adulthood development age
issue: integrity vs. despair
coping strategy: wisdom/disdain
later adulthood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
elder-hood development age
issue: immortality vs. extinction
resolution: social support
coping strategy: confidence/difference
elder-hood issue, resolution, and coping strategy
study of universal and unique behaviors across species. the genetic diversity needs for survival
What is the evolutionary theory?
species members with traits conducive to environmental conditions survive to pass their genes on to offspring
What does Darwin's theory state?
What is a genotype?
expression of the trait
What is a phenotype?
one gene determines the expression of the trait
two genes needed for expression of the trait
both genes expressed in the new cell
activities at the biochemical level that alter gene expression but do not alter the genome itself
1. can be turned on or off
2. expression varies
3. plasticity--modified with experience
What are the 5 ways genes interact with environment throughout life?
1. rate and sequence of development
2. individual traits
3. abnormal development
What are the 3 factors that contribute to individual variability?
2. RNA splicing edits DNA before coding proteins
3. cellular environment
How can gene expressions vary?
What are the stages of prenatal development?
first 2 weeks
characteristics of germinal period
3 to 10 weeks
4 weeks--neural tube
8 weeks--major organs and structures
characteristics of embryonic period
10 weeks to birth
grows to 3 inches
2nd trimester--grows 1 inch in 10 days
4th month--sucks, swallows, and changes position
5th month--hair, skin thickens
5.5 months--age of viability
6th month--50-90% chance of survival outside of uterus.
3rd trimester--grows from 10 inches to 20 inches
increases weight from 2 to 7-7.5 lbs.
CNS, respiratory, and cardiovascular maturation
characteristics of fetal period
3. environmental toxins
What are the 3 tetratogens?
mental retardation, impaired growth, behavioral/learning disabilities
traits of fetal alcohol syndrome
low birth weight, birth defects, SIDS
fever, high-pitched crying, muscle spasms, sleep disturbances
irritability, attention difficulties
traits of maternal use of narcotics in infant
LBW, decreased arousal/responsiveness
increased risk of asthma, SIDS
traits of maternal nicotine use in infant
LBW, increased heart rate, dehydration
traits of maternal caffeine use in infant
neurological development, motor skills delayed
traits of maternal prescription drug use in infant
alertness and responsiveness, depression
traits of maternal anesthetics use in infant
average 8-14 years
1. uterine contractions and dilation of cervix to 10 cm
3. placenta expelled
What are the stages of birth?
1. prolonged recovery
2. no hormone release to help baby
3. mother less satisfied with delivery experience
4. more expensive
What is the issue with Cesarean births?
birth to 24 months
What is the age of infancy?
1. maturation of sensory and motor functions
2. sensorimotor intelligence
5. emotional development
What are the 5 major developmental tasks?
triples in the first year
average weight 7 to 7.5 lbs
about 20 inches
Infant birth weight
less than 5 lbs 8 oz
premature birth (<38 weeks)
small for GA
Low birth weight (LBW)
less than 2.2 lbs
physical and cognitive impairments
securely attached, developmental delays
What is the APGAR scale
2.5 months--chest up
3 months--roll over
3.5 months--sit with support
5.5 months--sit alone
6 months--stand holding furniture
9 months--walk when led
11 months--stand alone
12 months--walk alone, and pincer grasp
12-24 months--walk steadily, explore stairs, climb, and slide and jump
Motor skill sequence
1. hearing -birth
2. vision- 4 months
3. prefer faces
4. depth perception- 4 months
What are the 7 sensory developments and what age?
1. reflexes--first few weeks
2. first habits (pleasant vs. unpleasant)--1-4 months
3. circular reaction (use of familiar actions)--4-8 months
4. coordination of means and end--8-11 months
5. experimentation--11-18 months
6. insight--18 months+
What is the sensorimotor intelligence from Piaget?
understanding that objects continue to exist even when not physically present
What is object permanence?
5 months--recognizes own name
8 months--simple gestures
12 to 16 months:
language production (20-40 words)
early infancy: arousal and distress
first year: basic emotions intensify with awareness of environment
12-24 months: secondary emotions, sense of self, humor
1. stranger anxiety
2. separation anxiety
What are the signs of attachment?
babies can distinguish picture of caregiver from stranger
depends on the caregivers response
What is stranger anxiety and at what age?
less distressed if mother leaves door open when out of the room
separation from mother for 30 minutes is source of infant stress
What is separation anxiety and at what age?
1. birth to 3 months--repeated interactions
2. 3 to 6 months--preferential response to caregiver
3. 6 to 9 months--attachment:maintains physical proximity
4. 9 to 12 months--expectation about care-giving
5. 12 months+--babies influence caregivers partnership
What are the stages of attachment? (Bowlby)
1. secure (2/3)
2. insecure (1/3)
What is the quality of attachment?
predicts quality of peer relationships
define strange situation
use parent as base for exploration
view the world as a safe place
What does it mean to be secure in attachment?
anxious/resistant--clingy and resists stranger
disorganized--erratic and negative behavior (LT risks)
What does it mean to be insecure in attachment?
1. maternal depression
3. social support
4. financial concerns
5. infant characteristics
6. attachment disorder
What are the influencing factors of attachment?
2 to 4
What are the ages of toddlerhood?
1. elaboration of locomotion
2. language development
3. fantasy play
4. self- control
What are the 4 development tasks of toddler-hood?
maturation: cerebral cortex, increase in size, and behavioral goals and opportunities for practice
skills: walk, run, throw, catch, climb, slide
What happens in toddler-hood with locomotor abilities?
representational skills, symbolic drawing, pretend play, and language
What occurs in the semiotic thinking phase for toddlers?
repeating the action of something they saw a few weeks ago, not done just in front of them
What is deferred imitation?
ability to infer meaning from context
What is fast-mapping?
misapplication of grammatical rules
What is over-regulation?
rapid increase in vocabulary, about 10-12 words a day
What occurs at age 18 to 24 months?
can start telegraphic speech (2 word sentences)
What occurs at age 30 months?
learn to express their feelings
What occurs at age 3-4?
they start using the correct application of grammatical rules
What occurs at 4+?
provided meaning to events that children don't understand
What did Piaget believe about play?
say play as defining new field of mastery, Zone of Proximal Develpoment
What did Vygotsky believe about play?
a vehicle for expressing emotional conflict
What did Erikson believe about play?
What is power assertion?
expressing anger, disappointment, disapproval
What is love withdrawal?
explaining why behavior was wrong, pointing out consequences, redirecting behavior
What is induction?
1. identify the problem behavior
2. communicate the impact
3. suggest an alternative
4. implement discipline
5. communicate expectation
What is the blueprint for discipline?
autonomy vs shame and doubt
What is the psycho-social theory crisis?
What is the psycho-social theory central process resolving crisis?
positive: will--capacity of the mind to direct action and energy to pursue goals
What is the psycho-social theory coping strategies?
Sets with similar terms
Growth and Development of Newborn and Infant
N350 Peds ATI Chapter 3 (infants 1 month to 1 year)
N350 Peds ATI Chapter 3 (infants 1 month to 1 year)
OTA 237 Part 1 (Midterm)
Other sets by this creator
Test 2 Med-Surg
Med-Surg Test 1
Nursing 10 Exam 2
Recommended textbook solutions
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, Being
Michael R Solomon
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Spencer A. Rathus
Elliot Aronson, Robin M. Akert, Samuel R. Sommers, Timothy D. Wilson
Other Quizlet sets
Music exam 2
I'm three warm up exercise for disease transmissio…