Terms in this set (42)
A new practice set up by Eisenhower in 1954 after the Soviet Union had tested its first thermonuclear device, calling for plans to make the United States' power so immense that no country would dare to attack it "for fear of retaliation." This led to 19 hydrogen bomb tests between '54 and '58, and make the U.S. more powerful than ever.
khrushchev "peaceful coexistance"
theory developed and applied by the Soviet Union at various points during the Cold War in the context of its ostensibly Marxist-Leninist foreign policy and was adopted by Soviet-influenced "Communist states" that they could peacefully coexist with the capitalist bloc
In the event of an attack from an aggressor, a state would massively retaliate by using a force disproportionate to the size of the attack. The aim of massive retaliation is to deter an adversary from initially attacking. For such a strategy to work, it must be made public knowledge to all possible aggressors. The adversary also must believe that the state announcing the policy has the ability to maintain second-strike capability in the event of an attack. It must also believe that the defending state is willing to go through with the deterrent threat, which would likely involve the use of nuclear weapons on a massive scale.Massive retaliation works on the same principles as mutually assured destruction, with the important caveat that even a minor conventional attack on a nuclear state could conceivably result in all-out nuclear retaliation.Coined by John Foster Dulles.
WHO Regional Office for Southeast Asia
john foster dulles sec. state
secretary of state, policy to liberate captive people in Eastern Europe by political pressure and propaganda; massive retaliation to counter SovietlChinese aggression with nuclear weapons; brinksmanship to be persistent to solve crises (even to the extent of war)
allen dulles CIA
Director of CIA from 1953 to 1961. He agreed with Eisenhower's belief of the integral nature of clandestine activities in the struggle against Communism. Allen Dulles, along with his brother, was instrumental in the decision of the Eisenhower administration to become involved in the coup - their conclusion that Mossadegh had to be removed form power was not shared at the time by Assistant Secretary of State for Near East and South Asian Affairs Henry Byroade, Iranian Ambassador Henderson, or the CIA station chief in Iran. (Gasiorowski 57)
He overthrew an unpopular Cuban dictator, Batista, in 1959. He was first welcomed but later became a harsh dictator who suspended elections and controlled the press. He nationalized the industry and cut US relations, later turning to the USSR for support.
was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death in 1970. Along with Muhammad Naguib, he led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which removed King Farouk I and heralded a new period of industrialization in Egypt, together with a profound advancement of Arab nationalism, including a short-lived union with Syria
suez canal crisis
International waterway through the Isthmus of Suez
Egypt has been receiving aid from the Soviets, leading Eisenhower to promise money to Egypt to curtail the Soviets
Eisenhower withdrew his offer and Egypt attempted to nationalize the Canal
Britain, France, and Israel invaded to gain back control of the Canal
Eisenhower forced France, Britain, and Israel to withdraw
The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of US President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The doctrine stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms.
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
Ho Chi Minh
A Vietnamese Communist revolutionary who attempted to lead movements against French rule pre- and post-WWII, by leading the League for the Independence of Vietnam. He was able to awaken a movement in Vietnam that required the French to take action, primarily by creating the Republic of Vietnam, led by a puppet emperor, Bao Dai. However, his forces were able to defeat the French in 1954, when they sieged a fortress in Dien Bien Phu.
Dien Bien Phu
France had exercised colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After Japan's defeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the North an independent republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In the Spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. Lead to the withdrawal of France from Indochina.
geneva peace accords
meant to unite vietnam; meeting between nineteen nations; divided vietnam along 17th parallel; france control south for two years; in 1956 there would be unification and reelection; france places old emperor in control and he asks diem to form gov; calls on ho chi minh; US begins aiding south vietnam and Diem wins in election by 98% of vote; he begins a nationalist government w basis in catholicism, arresting those who oppose claiming they're communist; us supports them thinking they were really cleaning out commies; diem does not call elections in 1956, and eisenhower backs this, knowing ho chi minh would claim control again; civil war breaks out against south for freedom and n viet doesn't help
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
The US picked him to be leader of South Vietnam because he was pro-U.S. and anti-communist, but he was Roman Catholic and not Buddhist, so he did not gain the support of the large Buddhist population in South Vietnam, which is just one of the reasons why he was a poor choice, he didn't care for poor, he started to jail people who were critical of him, and he acted like a dictator. He was assassinated by members of the CIA.
national liberation front
Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule and aided what group of communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in the south. Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
(League for the Independence of Vietnam) communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh, and the group at the end of 1945 control the entire northern half of Vietnam, with their capital at Hanoi. There success was largely, if not only, because of US aid, which ended immediately after the war
Federal Highway Act
Planned route of highways that would travel between major cities. Was expected to help people move quickly into cities and also increase their appeal. The opposite happened and people moved farther out of town and it became a catalyst for blossoming suburbs, (1916) Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of interstate highways over a 20-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point and finally overturned the Jacksonian idea that the Federal government should not interfere with road construction
cheapest method of shipping heavy, low-value, nonperishable goods, have high capacity, sometimes inaccessible to market, slow, can get stuck by weather
labor management detente
with the labor management enforced the tensions between the employer and employees eased, as they had to comply to the new rules.
john kenneth galbraith
Canadian economist. Galbraith probably wouldn't make this list if contributions to economic theory were all that mattered; as it is, his liberal popular writings like The Affluent Society and The New Industrial State (with their emphasis on public service and the limitations of the marketplace) ensure his coming up again and again.
pearle power of positive thinking
by Vincent Peale, formula for getting over anxiety's, threat of communism, the red scare all about attitude
whyte the organization man
• William Whyte- Fortune Magazine Editor- wrote The Organization Man in 1956. Business man went to work in suit like everyone else, lived in a house like everyone else, cut his hair to his job's liking. (CONFORMITY) Believed that the rugged individualism that has been shaped over time (group think) was dangerous. Felt it would stunt creativity. (Scientists, artists, etc.) Can't win SPACE RACE without creative scientist.
friedan feminine mystique
An author who, in her book, gave the women's movement a new direction by encouraging middle-class women to seek fulfillment in professional careers rather than confining themselves to the roles of wife, mother, and homemaker.
The first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the time of Brown v. Board, who submitted the unanimous ruling rejecting segregation in public schools. In his speech, he said that there is no true separate but equal idea in the U.S., and that upholding this suppresses the black race and teaches them that they are inferior. He was widely denounced in the South after this ruling.
brown v. board of education
the 1954 Supreme Court decision that struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine as fundamentally unequal. This case eliminated state power to use race as a criterion of discrimination in law and provided the national government with the power to intervene by exercising strict regulatory policies against discriminatory actions
education v. topeka
A case involving 13 Topeka, Kansas parents who sued the board of education in Topeka for not allowing their children to attend the white schools. They eventually won when on May 17, 1954 a unanimous decision was handed down by the supreme court. This reversed the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, and required all schools to desegregate with "all deliberate speed".
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
martin luther king jr.
1929-1968. Pivotal leader of the American Civil Rights movement. Non-violent leader, became youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 for his efforts to end segregation and racial discrimination. Led Montgomery Bus Boycott, helped found Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and led March on Washington in 1963 where he delivered "I have a Dream" speech.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference. It was a civil rights movement organization - its first president was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Started as a organization that stressed nonviolent rebellion to stop the segregation of buses in the south. ideas were very controversial especially its idea that churches should be involved in the boycotting.
Is the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, especially by people who believe the law or the government to not be legitimate or moral.
civil rights act of 1957
The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. It was proposed by Congress to President Dwight Eisenhower.
Little Rock was the site of the forced integration of a public school in 1956. The use of the 101st showed that the federal government was upholding and will continue to uphold the decision of Brown v. Board.
Decision by the US government to hasten the process of Indian assimilation by ending its relationship with Indian Tribes in the 1950s. Enacted through a three-step process: compensation, termination, and relocation.
The process of moving Native Americans from lands in the east to less desirable lands in the midwest.
unsuccessful presidential candidate against Lyndon Johnson in 1964; he called for dismantling the New Deal, escalation of the war in Vietnam, and the status quo on civil rights. Many see him as the grandfather of the conservative movement of the 1980s.
william f. buckley jr.
William Frank Buckley, Jr. as an American conservative author and commentator. He founded the political magazine National Review in 1955, hosted 1,429 episodes of the television show Firing Line from 1966 until 1999, and was a nationally syndicated newspaper columnist. His writing style was famed for its erudition, wit, and use of uncommon words. Worked in CIA and Military.
In October 1957, the Soviet Union surprised the world by launching Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. The resulting outcry in the United States, especially fears that the Soviets were ahead in both space exploration and military missiles, forced the Eisenhower administration to increase defense spending and accelerate America's space program.