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PC 702 Quiz 1
Terms in this set (44)
(attributable proportion) How much of the disease incidence is attributed to a specific exposure (How much can be changed if exposure to an agent is eliminated?)
The ODDS of getting a disease if exposed/The ODDS of getting a disease if NOT exposed (obtained from a case-control study and can be used instead of the relative risk). The measure of association of choice for a case control study
The probability of getting a disease if exposed/The probability of getting a disease if NOT exposed
The incidence calculated using a period of time during which all of the individuals in the population are considered to be at risk for the outcome ("Have you ever had...")
Prevalence measured over an interval of time (portion of people with disease any time during interval)
Prevalence measured at a particular point in time (portion of people with disease on a particular date-single point in time)
Number of people at risk who develops a certain illness/ Total number of people at risk. Proportion of population that develops illness during an outbreak
When attack rate same for exposed and unexposed relative risk is = 1.0 and the exposure is said not to be associated with disease. The greater the difference in attack rates between group, the larger the relative risk, and the stronger assoc between exposure and disease
Person acquires disease from exposure (contaminated food)
Person acquires disease from exposure to primary case
(a secondary attack rate is determined by determining susceptible people who have been exposed to a primary case.)
Measure of the amount of pre-existing and present disease. Prevalence includes all of the old and the new cases of disease. Hint: incidence versus prevalence: iNcidence=New, Prevalence=Pre-existing/Present
Number of new cases over a period of time or new cases over a population or it could use both time and population in the denominator. Hint: incidence versus prevalence: iNcidence=New, Prevalence=Pre-existing/Present
Subject to death (A mortality rate is the number of deaths due to a disease divided by the total population.)
Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological well-being. (rate is # of new cases of disease during a specific interval divided by the population at start of interval)
Tells us what fraction of the population is affected. The numerator is included in the denominator. (men who were diabetic in study/total men in study). Expressed as fraction, decimal or percentage.
The number or rates of events in one group/The number or rates of events in another group. (comparison, may not be related-apples to oranges). Common descriptive measures or analytic tool.
Is the frequency of an event over time or population.
The numbers of cases during a certain period of time (usually per year) to the size of the population in which they occurred. Tells us how fast the disease is occurring in a population.
Consists of standard criteria for classifying whether person has disease. (if outbreak may include time, place, and person). The clinical criteria usually include lab confirmation, if available, or combinations of symptoms (subjective complaints), signs (objective physical findings), and other findings (suspected, probable, confirmed)
Person to person contact/droplet
Occurs through a common vehicle such as contaminated air or water supply or vector such as mosquito., vehicleborne, vectorborne, airborne
Chain of Infection
The agent leaves the reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission, and enters through an appropriate portal of entry to infect a susceptible host.
Spectrum of Disease
Graphical representation of variation in the manifestations of disease. One end is the subclinical, not ordinarily identified and one end is the fatal illnesses, and between are diseases ranging from mild to severe. (disease process may result in illness that ranges from mild to severe or fatal)
Natural history of disease
Progression of a disease process in an individual over time, in the absence of treatment. (HIV-AIDS-death - 10yrs +)
An individual factor that contributes to cause disease is shown as a piece of a pie. After all the pieces of a pie fall into place, the pie is complete — and disease occurs.
The individual pieces of a Causal Pie.
A complete pie or "Causal Pathway". "Sufficient" to cause disease.
A component that appears in every pie or pathway, because without it, disease does not occur.
Epidemiologic triad or triangle
Consists of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together.
Role of APRN in Epidemiology
We must form linkages to practice collaboratively with other professionals so that we can provide the most care for the most people. We must report reportable diseases, strange diseases, or composition of symptoms on unknown processes. Use information to make evidence based change.
food attack rate
# who ate food and got sick/number who ate the food
secondary attack rate
# of cases among contacts of primary cases/ # of total contacts
The study of distribution and determinants of health=related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems.
6 key terms of epidemiology
study, distribution, determinants, health-related states or events, specified populations and application
Epidemiology - study
scientific, systematic to the collection, analysis and interpretation of data and rely on careful observation and use of valid comparison groups to assess whether what was observed differs from what might be expected. Also uses biostatistics and informatics with biologic, economic social and behavioral sciences.
frequency and pattern
Frequency in epidemiology distribution
# of health events and relationship of that number to the size of the population
Pattern in epidemiology distribution
occurrence of health-related events by time, place and person - of health events in a population
the causes and other factors that influence the occurrence of the disease and other health-related issues
Health-related states or events
anything that affects the well-being of a population
Identify frequency measures
Ratios, rates and proportions
Discuss ratios in terms of what is in the numerator and what is included in the denominator
In certain ratios, the numerator and denominator are different categories
T/F - In epidemiology, a rate is a measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population over a specified period of time
Measures of association
Compare disease occurrence among one group with disease occurrence in another group. Ex: risk ratio (relative risk), rate ratio, odds ratio and proportionate mortality rate
The measure of association of choice for a case control study
5 W's of epidemiology
What, Who, Where, When, Why
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