Human Resource Management- Test 3 ( Chapter 7 and 8)
Human Resource Management- Mondy 12th ed.
Terms in this set (64)
Training and Development
Heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance.
What is the primary purpose of training?
To provide workers with the knowledge and skills needed for their present job.
Activities designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs.
ex. Showing a worker how to operate a lathe or a supervisor how to schedule daily production.
-Learning that goes beyond today's job and has a more long-term focus.
-Prepares employees to keep pace with organization as it changes and grows.
What is the primary goal of Training and Development?
Improved performance, the bottom-line purpose of training and development, is a strategic goal for organizations.
-Firm that recognizes the critical importance of continous performance-related T&D and takes appropriate action.
- Provides supportive learning environment
- provides specific learning processes and practices
- leadership behavior in organization supports and reinforces learning.
-Workers rewarded for learning and provided enriched jobs, promotions, and compensation.
-Organizations with reputation of being learning leader attract more and better qualified employees
What do the 100 best companies to Work for in America emphasize?
Learning and Growth opportunities- training and development
What impact does Technology have on Training?
-No factor has influenced T&D more than technology.
-Computer, internet, Blackberry's, cell phones, text messaging, and e-mail are dramatically affecting how training is conducted.
-Technology has played a huge role in changing the way knowledge is delivered to employees and this change is constantly being extended.
-Ten years ago, just 9 percent of courses were delivered via technology-based methods. Today, more than three times as much instruction relies on technology.
- computer technology, the internet, and intranets have made training approaches economically feasible to a degree never before possible
- given the ability to delver knowledge to employees on an as-needed basis, anywhere on the globe, and at a pace consistent with their learning styles.
Just-in-time training (on-demand training)
training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed.
Practical orientation to Learning
Research on student learning styles indicates that most college students have a practical orientation to learning, with a preference for concrete learning activities, rather than a theoretical, abstract orientation.
What is the first step of the Training and Development process?
Determine specific training and development needs.
T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job
- removes employee from pressure of having to produce while learning
- Emphasis on learning skills required by job
T&D method for online instruction.
- available anytime, anywhere in the world, and in different languages
What is the primary reason firms use e-learning?
T&D method in which praticipants are required to respond to specific problemsn they may encournter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations.
used to teach such skills as:
- grievance handling
- performance appraisal reviews
- conference leadership
- team problem solving
T&D method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it.
- used in classroom with instructor who serves as facilitator.
T&D method in which the participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers, e-mail messages, memoranda, reports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager's desk.
A learning management system:
Moves beyond delivering tactical training projects to initiating learning programs aligned with strategic corporate goals.
T&D method that permits a person to learn by copying or replication behaviors of others to show managers how to handle various situations.
ex- conducting performance appraisal reviews
- correcting unacceptable performance
- delegating work
- improving safety habits
-handling discrimination complaints
- overcoming resistance to change
- orienting new employees
- mediating individuals or groups in conflict
T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization
- focused on creating organizational change
- proactive and strategic
- growth attributed to universities' flexibility
Process of monitoring and measuring a firm's internal processes, such as operations, and then comparing the data with information from companies that excel in those areas.
- focus on metrics such as:
- training costs
- ration of training staff to employees
- whether new or more traditional delivery systems are used.
consist of all learning experiences provided by an organizations resulting in upgrading skills and knowledge required in current and future managerial positions.
- imperative managers keep up with latest developments in their fields while managing ever-changing workforce in dynamic environment
- first-line supervisors, middle managers, and executives may all participate in management development programs
approach to advising, coaching and nurturing for creating practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal and professional growth and development.
- mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm
- relationship may be formal or informal
On-the-Job training (OJT)
An informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them.
- Most commonly used T&D method
- No problem transferring what has been learned to the task
training method that combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training
- Traditionally used in craft jobs
- apprentice earns less than master craftsperson who is instructor
Groups of employees, who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss problems, investigate casues, recommend solutions, and take corrective action when authorized to do so.
Conscious effort to develop effective work groups and cooperative skills throughout the organization.
-uses self-directed teams
- small group of employees responsible for entire work process
- members work together to improve their operation
Often considered a responsibility of the immediate boss, who provides assistance, much like a mentor.
Organization development technique that is designed to help individuals learn how others perceive their behavior.
- no agenda, leaders, autority, power positions
- people learn through dialogue
-participants encouraged to learn about themselves and others in group
-Also known as T-group training.
Level of commitment workers make to their employer, seen in their willingness to stay at the firm and go beyond the call of duty.
Goal-oriented process directed toward ensuring that organizational processes are in place to maximize the productivity of employees, teams, and ultimately, the organization.
Formal system of review and evaluation of individual or team task performance.
What are the uses of performance appraisal?
Human resource planning: used in making decisions such as promotion, demotion, terminations, layoff, and transfer.
Training and development: points out employees' specific needs
Career planning and development: Assesses employee's strengths and weaknesses and determines employee's potential
Compensation programs: Provide basis for rational decisions regarding pay adjustments
What are the problems with performance appraisal?
Performance appraisal is constantly under a barrage of criticism.
Rating scales method seems to be most vulnerable target.
Many of the problems commonly mentioned are not inherent in this method but, rather reflect improper implementation.
Mistretta v Sandia Corporation
A federal district court judge ruled against the company, stating there is sufficient circumstantial evidence to indicate that age bias and age based policies appear throughout the performance rating process to the detriment of the protected age group.
What is the most common cause for the failure of Performance Appraisal Systems?
Expecting too much from one appraisal plan.
What is the final step in the appraisal process?
Discuss appraisal with employee.
Give some examples of appraisal criteria
-Traits such as attitude, appearance, and initiative.
-Behaviors such as task-related behavior or competencies
- leadership style, developing others, teamwork and cooperation
-Competencies such as broad range of knowledge, skills, traits, and behaviors.
Who is the individual responsible for Performance Appraisal?
Usually the immediate supervisor.
also- peers and team members, subordinates, 360 degree feedback
-If employees understand their objectives and the criteria used for evaluation, they are in a good position to appraise own performance. Allows employee to criticize their own performance objectively and take action to improve it.
-Employee development is self-development
-Self-appraisal may make employees more highly motivated.
-has great appeal to managers who are primarily concerned with employee participation and development.
360-degree feedback evaluation method
popular performance appraisal method that is a multi-rater evaluation and involves input from multiple sources within the firm as well as external sources
-Focuses on skills needed across organizational boundaries
-More objectives measure of performance
-Process more legally defensible.
Work Standards method
appraisal method that compares each employee's performance to a predetermined standard or expected level of output
- standards: Normal output or average worker operating at a normal pace
- time study and work sampling used
- workers need to know how standards were set
An obvious advantage of using standards as appraisal criteria is objectivity.
Forced Distribution method
Performance appraisal method which the rater is required to assign individual in a work group to a limited number of categories, similar to a normal frequency distribution.
Purpose is to keep managers from being excessively lenient and having a disproportionate number of employees in the "superior" category.
- Assumes all groups of employees have same distribution
- they facilitate budgeting
- they guard against weak managers who are too timid to get rid of poor performers
- Require managers to be honest with workers about how they are doing
Has 3 levels- Best performers placed in top 20 percent
- Next group in middle 70 percent
- poorest performing group in bottom 10 percent
-Also called a rank and yank system
-unpopular with many managers
-may damage morale and generate mistrust of leadership
-rankings may be way for companies to easily rationalize firings.
Used by companies like GE, Cisco systems, EDS, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, Pepsi, Goodyear, Ford, Capital One.
evaluation error that occurs when a manager generalizes one positive performance feature or incident to all aspects of employee performance, resulting in a higher rating
evaluation error that occurs when a manager generalizes one negative performance feature or incident to all aspects of employee performance, resulting in a lower rating
Central Tendency error
evaluation appraisal where error that occurs when employees are incorrectly rated near the average or middle of a scale.
- may be encouraged by some rating scale systems requiring evaluator to justify extremely high or extremely low ratings.
- some raters may avoid possible controversy or criticism by giving only average ratings.
Personal Bias (Stereotyping)
- managers allow individual differences such as gender, race, or age to affect ratings. They establish mental pictures of what are considered ideal typical workers and employees who do not match this picture may be unfairly judged.
- effects of cultural bias, or stereotyping, can influence appraisals.
- other factors
example is mild- mannered employees may be appraised more harshly, simply because they do not seriously object to appraisal results. This behavior in sharp contrast to the more outspoken employee who confirms the adage the squeaky wheel gets the grease.
-Being unduly critical of an employees work performance.
-Managers, on their own initiative, apply and evaluation more rigorously than the company standard.
-May be due to a lack of understanding of various evaluation factors
-Giving an underserved high performance appraisal rating to an employee.
- behavior is often motivated by a desire to avoid controversy over the appraisal.
-Most prevalent when highly subjective performance criteria are used and evaluator is required to discuss results with employees.
- may result in failure to recognize correctable deficiencies and may also deplete the merit budget and reduce the rewards available for superior employees.
What is the basic purpose of the appraisal system?
to improve performance of individuals, teams, and the entire organization. May also serve to assist in making administrative decision concerning pay increases, promotions, transfers or terminations.
What is the biggest risk with 360 degree feedback?
Confidentiality. Many firms outsource the process to make participants feel comfortable that the information they share and receive is completely anonymous, but the information is very sensitive and, in the wrong hands, could impact careers.
-performance appraisal method where rater ranks all employees from a group in order of overall performance.
- example best employee in the group is ranked highest, and the poorest is ranked lowest. procedure is followed until all employees are ranked. Difficulty occurs when al individuals have performed at comparable levels as perceived by the evaluator.
- Paired comparison is based on single criterion
Critical incident method
-performance appraisal method that requires keeping written records of highly favorable and unfavorable employee work actions
-At end of appraisal period, rater uses these records along with other data to evaluate employee performance.
-Appraisal more likely to cover entire evaluation period
- Does not focus on last few weeks or months.
What is standardization?
Where firms use the same evaluation instrument for all employees in the same job category who work for the same supervisor.
Job related Criteria:
- job relatedness is perhaps the most basic criterion needed in employee performance appraisals.
The uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures and court decision are quite clear on this point.
- evaluation criteria should be determined through job analysis
Implies security in one job, often with one company.
- historically, this type of security depended on an employee doing a good job and keeping out of trouble.
The process of learning about oneself.
- one of the first things that a person should do in planning a career
- a self-assessment can help a person target career choices and goals. Realistic self-assessment may help a person avoid mistakes that could affect his or her entire career progression.
- thorough self-assessment goes a long way toward helping match an individual's specific qualities and goals with the right job or profession.
- not done once and forgotten, should span a career and into retirement.
a flexible line of movement through which a person may travel during their work life
- following an established career path, the employee can undertake career development with the firm's assistance
- may involve weaving from company to company and from position to position as he or she obtains greater knowledge and experience.
A formal approach used by the organization to ensure that people with the proper qualifications and experiences are available when needed.
- the organization identifies paths and activities for individual employees as they develop.
- must closely parallel individual career planning if a firm is to retain its best and brightest workers.
Traditional Career Path
One in which an employee progresses vertically upward in the organization from one specific job to the next.
- Assumption is that each preceding job is essential preparation for the next-higher-level job
- biggest advantage is that it is straightforward.
Dual Career Path
originally developed to deal with the problem of technically trained employees who had no desire to move into management through the normal upward mobility procedure
- recognizes that technical specialists can and should be allowed to contribute their expertise to a company without having to become managers
- often established to encourage and motivate professionals in fields such as engineering, sales, marketing, finance, and human resource
- has been a trademark in higher education- example moving through the ranks of instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor without having to go into administration.
Process of moving a worker to a lower level of duties and responsibilities which typically involves a reduction in pay.
- long associated with failure, limited promotional opportunities in the future and the fast pace of technological change may make demotion a legitimate career option.
- it stigma of demotion can be removed can give workers in over their heads a chance to go back into old positions.
-opens up a clogged promotional path and at the same time permit a senior employee to escape unwanted stress without being viewed as a failure.
Workers who were born after world war 2 through the mid-1960's.
oldest of whom were 60 in 2005, do not appear to be ready for retirement.
- these workers have skills and experiences that are critically needed in companies that place high value on skill, experience and a strong work ethic.
Workers born between the mid-1960's and late 1970's.
- one of the most widely misunderstood phenomena facing management today.
- differ from previous generations including their natural affinity for technology and their entrepreneurial spirit
- recognize that their careers cannot be founded securely on a relationship with one employer.