Humanities - Philosophy
Terms in this set (31)
"The Father of Philosophy," believed that water was the unifying substance of the universe.
were a group of traveling "scholar-teachers" who taught eloquence and rhetoric for money! (sophistry).
"The unexamined life is not worth living" and "The Gadfly of Athens"
The Dialectical or "Socratic" Method
in debating by asking a seemingly innocent and simple question, then proceeding to wider and wider applications of the answer, that is, moving from specific examples to general principles and from particular to universal truths using Inductive Reasoning.
by Plato in which he describes the ideal state led by a philosopher/king.
"The Allegory of the Cave"
The purpose of philosophy is to reintroduce the mind to its once-perfect understanding of Forms, which it has forgotten while "imprisoned" in the sensory world.The "shadows" that the cave dwellers perceive as "reality" are, in fact, only imperfect imitations of the true Forms that occupy the world of the senses.
The Academy and the "peripatetic philosopher"
ARISTOTLE. Studied under Plato in The Academy, tutored the young Alexander the Great
(a philosophy founded by the Hellenistic Greek philosopher, Zeno of Citium, ca. 300 B.C.E.) and BY DOING ONE'S DUTY WHILE ACCEPTING ONE'S FATE WITH A POSITIVE DISPOSITION.
The attempt to explain the natural world (governed by REASON) through the allegorical interpretation of the Patristic Tradition (Holy Scripture + the writings of the Church Fathers). Basically an attempt to show that :"There is no conflict between FAITH and REASON."
St. Thomas Aquinas and his conclusion in his Summa Theologica
Thus, he stated, "ULTIMATELY, THERE IS NO CONFLICT BETWEEN FAITH AND REASON!" was one of the most intellectually exquisite and masterful arguments ever put forth for proving the existence of God through Logic. However, even Aquinas eventually put down his pen, admitting that reason can take the Believer only so far. Faith, he said, must complete the journey
Pico della Mirandola - "I have read every book ever written!"
Spoke or understood at least 20 languages. His introduction to this planned debate was his Oration on the Dignity of Man, which argued for free will and the "perfectibility" of the individual. This document became the "manifesto" of Renaissance Humanism.
The "New Learning"
(glorification of the empirical method), a method of inquiry based on:1. direct observation and2. experimentation
Sir Francis Bacon,
English philosopher/scientist who wrote Novum Organum (The New Method, 1620) which stressed Inductive reasoning - a method of inquiry that begins with direct observation and experimentation and moves toward the establishment of general conclusions or axioms.
"Four False Notions"
"Idols" in reasoning - Idols of the Tribe,the Cave, the Marketplace, and the Theatre
Blaise Pascal and his Pensées and his 'Great Wager"
underwent a mystical experience at the age of 24 that converted him from Protestantism to devout Catholicism and convinced him that science and religion were irreconcilable, the only way to God being through the heart rather than the head (faith over reason). Produced a body of thoughts and aphorisms called Pensées (Thoughts) collected by his sisters from scraps of papers scattered about his domicile after his death at 39 and containing his "Great Wager" (which said "bet that ____ ______."
John Locke and his tabula rasa.
One of the major influences on modern philosophical and political thought who funded the Empirical Tradition in the 17th century (1600s) His Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) maintained that we learn everything through sensory experience and that we come into the world as a tabula rasa (blank slate)
"Cogito ergo sum"
("I think, therefore, I am")
At least three contributions of Sir Isaac Newton
discovered the nature of light and space. codified the science of the 17th century from its speculative and empirical stages. his Principial Mathematica (Principles of Mathematics, 1687) promoted the idea of a uniform and intelligible universe that operated as systematically as a well-oiled machine - this concept of a "mechanical universe" essentially "de-sanctified" (secularized) nature for 18th century deists
Thomas Hobbes and his Leviathan.
English philosopher, materialist and highly pessimistic Philosophy. Book, described human beings in a "state of nature" where life was "nasty, brutish, and short"
"Life, health, liberty, and possessions"
John Locke. Leading philosopher of freedom. All human beings are equal and free to pursue
Wealth of Nations, division of labor
Adam Smith. Classic economics of supply and demand. Value is derived from labor used in production.
"leave it alone" self interest with produce supply and demand
"Man is born free but is everywhere in chains"
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU. Social Contract
He said his reading of Hume "awakened him from his dogmatic slumber."
With whom do we associate phenomena, noumena, and antinomies?
Who suggested a "Categorical Imperative"?
What book did Marx and Engels publish?
Who advanced the notion that "God is dead for modern man"?
Who described the difference between INTELLECT and INTUITION in how we experience reality?
What was the most influential philosophical movement of the 20th century?
Who said "We are what we choose to be"?