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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 16 Research
Terms in this set (85)
The second level of coding in a grounded theory study using the Strauss and Corbin approach, involving the process of categorizing, recategorizing, and condensing first level codes by connecting a category and its subcategories
Analyst codes for context
Basic social process (BSP)
The central process emerging through analysis of grounded theory data
One kind of core category
The main category or pattern of behavior in grounded theory analysis using the Strauss and Corbin approach
Pattern of behavior relevant and or problematic for study participants
In a grounded theory study, the central phenomenon that is used to integrate all categories of the data
In ethnographic analysis, a unit or broad category of cultural knowledge
A concept in grounded theory that involves comparing new data and new categories with previously existing conceptualizations
Glaser discussed this
In hermeneutics, the methodologic process in which, to reach understanding, there is continual movement between the parts and the whole of the text that are being analyzed
A figurative comparison use by some qualitative analysts to evoke a visual or symbolic analogy
The first level of coding in a grounded theory study, referring to the basic descriptive coding of the content of narrative materials
Data is broken down and similarities and differences are examined
May be actual words
In a hermeneutic study analysis following the precepts of Benner, a strong exemplar of the phenomenon under study, often used early in the analysis to gain understanding of the phenomenon
Qualitative content analysis
The process of organizing and integrating material from documents, often the narrative information from a qualitative study, according to key concepts and themes
A level of coding in a grounded theory study that begins once the core category has been discovered and involves limiting coding to only those categories related to the category
Two types: open and selective
Used to conceptualize topics under study in the Glaserian grounded theory
In an ethnographic analysis, a system of classifying and organizing terms and concepts, developed to illuminate a domain's organization and the relationship among the domain's categories
A recurring regularity emerging from an analysis of qualitative work
Provide insights into how substantive codes relate to eachother. Help grounded theorists to weave the broken pieces of data back together
Qualitative Analysis Challenges:
No universal rules; no one set way to do an analysis correctly
Voluminous amount of narrative data = lots of intensive work
Need for strong inductive powers and creativity
Condensing rich data to fit into concise reports
Qualitative data management: how?
Transcribing the data
Line by line coding
Reading entire set of data, then beginning to group by ideas
Manual systems to group and name include note cards, post-it notes, color-coding, conceptual files
Data reduction to reduce volume of data
Select, focus, simplify, abstract and transform raw data
In developing a coding scheme:
Related concepts are grouped together to facilitate the coding process
Usual procedure of developing a coding scheme
Create a coding scheme, based on a scrutiny of actual data, and then code according to the categories in the coding scheme
After a coding scheme has been developed:
The data are read in their entirety and coded for correspondence to the categories.
May take several readings to grasp
Narrative materials may contain elements relating to three or four different categories
Conceptual files approach (organizing data)
Creating a physical file for each category and then cutting out and inserting all the materials related to that category into the file.
Researchers can retrieve content by reviewing the applicable file folder
CAQDAS (organizing data)
Permit an entire data set to be entered onto the computer and coded; text corresponding to specified codes can then be retrieved for analysis
Can examine relationships
Frees up time and devotes more attention to conceptual issues
Qualitative data analysis in constructionist:
It involves putting segments together into meaningful conceptual patterns
Data management is reductionist is nature:
It involves converting masses of data into smaller, more manageable segments
It is important to be sensitive to what in qualitative studies?
Relationships, especially when developing themes
What are examples of charting devices?
Timelines or flow charts
What kind of categories are used in studies designed to develop a theory?
Abstract, conceptual coding categories to uncover meaning
Analysis begins with:
Searching for categories or themes
A general analytic overview involves:
Identify themes or broad categories.
Search for patterns among themes, variations in the data.
Develop charting devices, timelines.
Validate themes, patterns.
In some cases, calculate quasi-statistics.
Integrate thematic pieces.
Qualitative content analysis involves:
Breaking down the data into smaller units, coding and naming the units according to the content they represent, and grouping coded material based on shared concepts
The literature on content analysis often refers to:
Meaning units, the smallest segment of a test that contains a recognizable piece of info
What the text actually says. Qualitative studies mainly focus on summarizing this
What the text talks about, involves interpretation of the meaning
How Do we Generate meaning?
Noting patterns and themes
Seeing plausibility- does this make sense?
Clustering or partitioning; subsuming some points into themes
Counting- word clouds
Contrasts and comparisons of cases
Noting relationships between variables; any intervening variables or factors?
Building a logical chain of causality
Generating conceptual or theoretical coherence to create theory which can be predictive
Painting a picture
Data themes must be organized
Graphics, images, common cultural ideas often used
Analogies to express the experience or phenomena can be helpful
Sandelowski referred to a "story line" in the data
Extract facts: Givens or the context of the research
List all the topics that appear in the data
During the first level of analysis in ethnographic analysis (domain analysis):
Ethnographers identify relational patterns among terms in the domains that are used by members of the culture
Focuses on the cultural meaning of terms and symbols used in a culture and their interrelationships
Ethnographers decide how many domains the analysis will encompass. After, a taxonomy system is developed
Multiple relationships among terms in the domains are examined. Ethnographer analyzes data for similarities and differences among cultural terms in a domain
Cultural themes are uncovered. Domains are connected in cultural themes, which help to provide a holistic view of the culture being studied. Discovery of cultural meaning is the outcome
Four levels of data analysis in Spradleys research sequence
Duquesne school (descriptive phenomenology)
Only one that calls for validation of results by querying study participants
It is inappropriate either to return to participants to validate findings or to use external judges to review the analysis
Van Kaams method
Requires that intersubjective agreement be reached with other expert judges
Utrecht school (descriptive & interpretive phenomenology)
Van Manens approach
Involves six activities:
1. turning to the nature of the lived experience
2. exploring the experience as we live it
3. reflecting on essential themes
4. describing the phenomenon through the art of writing and rewriting
5. maintaining a strong relation to the phenomenon
6. balancing the research context by considering parts and whole
Three methods Van Manen used
Researchers view the text as a whole and capture its meanings
Researchers pull out statements that seem essential to the experience under study (highlighting)
Researchers analyze ever sentence. Once themes have been identified, they become the objects of interpretation through followup interviews with participants. Essential themes are discovered
Van Manen also called for:
Gleaning thematic descriptions from artistic sources, told qualitative researchers to keep in mind that literature, painting, and other art forms can provide rich experiential data
Heideggerian hermeneutics (interpretive)
Diekelmann, Allen, and Tanner
Gadamer stressed that:
To interpret a text, researchers cannot separate themselves from the meanings of the text and must strive to understand the possibilities that the text can reveal
Benner's Hermeneutic Analysis
Search for paradigm cases
Analysis of exemplars
What can be use in paradigm cases and thematic analysis to illuminate aspects of a paradigm or theme?
Paradigm cases and exemplars allow readers to:
Play a role in consensual validation of the results by deciding whether the cases support the researchers conclusions
Grounded theory analysis uses:
Two competing grounded theory strategies:
Glaser and Strauss (Glaserian)
Strauss and Corbin (Straussian)
What is an important concept in the Glaserian grounded theory?
How is coding done in the Glaserian grounded theory?
By conceptualizing data into patterns through open and selective coding
Level 1 codes (in vivo)
Derived directly from the language of the substantive area
Level 2 codes
Broader, level 1 condense into these
Level 3 codes
Theoretical constructs, most abstract codes
When does open coding end?
When the core category is discovered and then selective coding begins
Glaserians criteria for deciding on a core category
Must be central, reoccur frequently in the data, relates meaningfully and easily to other categories, clear and grabbing implications for formal theory
When do open codes open?
When a core category has been identified
Four of Glasers families of theoretical codes
Process: stages, phases, passages, transitions
Strategy: tactics, techniques, maneuverings
Cutting point: boundaries, turning points
The six Cs: causes, contexts, conditions, contingencies, consequences, and covariances
In the Glaserian theory, how do analysts document their ideas about data?
In memos which encourage researchers to reflect on and describe patterns in the data, relationships between categories, and emergent conceptualizations
Product of a typical Glaserian theory analysis:
Theoretical model that endeavors to explain a pattern of behavior that is relevant for study participants
Once a problem is discovered, the theorist goes on to discover the process these participants experience in coping with or resolving the problem
Glaser stressed that to generate a grounded theory:
The basic problem must emerge from the data, it must be discovered
Strauss and Corbin argued that:
Research itself is only one of four possible sources of a research problem, research can come from the literature or a researchers personal and professional experience
What types of coding are used in Glasers method?
Open, selective, and theoretical
What types of coding are used in Corbin and Strauss?
Open and axial
Outcome of Corbin and Strauss method:
Conceptual description (verification)
In Corbin and Strauss methods, what is used as an analytic strategy to help integrate structure and process?
Basic components of paradigm
Conditions, actions-interactions, and consequences or outcomes
In Corbin and Strauss methods, what was an analytic strategy for considering the range of possible conditions and consequences that can enter into the context?
First step in integrating findings in Corbin and Strauss:
Decide on a central category
Constructivist grounded theory
Theories include researchers' experience and involvements
What coding does constructivist grounded theory use?
Initial coding: data are studied to learn what participants view as problematic.
Focused coding: identify most significant initial code and then theoretically code
Format differs from quantitative reports
No hypothesis to prove
Researcher has aims or purpose
Methods must be clear and detailed so that reader can identify where data came from- audit trail
Possibly descriptive statistics for demographic data
Findings often use quotations and description to support identified ideas or themes
Major focus on critiquing qualitative analyses?
Whether researchers adequately documented the analytic process
Researchers have documented that they have used one approach consistently and have been faithful to the integrity of its procedures
First step in analyzing qualitative data:
To organize and index the materials for easy retrieval, typically by coding the content of the data by a coding scheme
In Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory, coding can be:
Word by word
Line by line
Incident by incident
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