1-olfactory, 2-optic, 3-occulomotor, 4-trochlear, 5-trigeminal (ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3)), 6-abducens, 7-facial, 8-vestibularcochlear, 9-glossopharyngeal, 10- vagus, 11-accessory, 12-hypoglossal
facial nerve EXITS through stylomastoid foramen but ENTERS via internal meatus
The frontal nerve is a continuation of CN V1, Ophthalmic. It gives rise to the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves.
Innate: Non-specific recognition of antigens, fast, and short-lived
ex) Natural Barriers, Phagocytes, Dendritic cells, Neutrophils, Macrophages, Mast cells,Eosinophils, Basophils, Complements
Adaptive: specific antigen recognition, slow, long-lived (second response better)
ex) B and T cells
Idiotypic variation - variations in variable region, particularly hypervariable region
Isotypic variation: variations in the function of Ab
IgM: first Ab secreted, found on naive B cells, is a pentamer, activates classical complement, only found in blood
IgG: second Ab secreted, most abundant Ab in blood/lymph, monomer, opsonization, neutralization and complement functions
IgA: monomor or dimer (J chain with secretory ability), most prominent in gut and saliva, neutralization function
IgE: monomor, degranulation function, high affinity to Fce receptors of basophil, eosinophils and mast cells (ALLERGY/PARASITES)
Chronic disease IgG elevated, if new IgM elevated
Arteries: some anatomists like facts others prefer made (up) stories
Common carotid artery:
External carotid: Superior thyroid, Ascending pharyngeal, Lingual, Facial, Occipital, Posterior auricular, Maxillary, Superficial- temporal
Subclavian artery: Vertebral artery and Thyrocervical trunk
Veins: they drain, have tributaries not branches, face drained by external jugular, internal parts of skull and deeper neck by internal jugular
Isotonic: constant tension, positive velocity and work
Isometric: constant length contraction (inc in tension but no shortening), no velocity or work
A muscle is composed of connective material (collagen, elastin, titin) and contractile proteins. When a muscle is at rest or even dead, if it is stretched to a longer length, the connective material will resist this increase in length just like a rubber band does when stretched. The force generated by stretching the connective material is called passive tension because it does not require the breakdown of ATP.
Stretching the muscle to a given length (passive tension or preload) and stimulating it to contract isometrically, that is, activate the contractile proteins. At each stretched length, the muscle will develop an additional amount of tension called, active tension because the contractile proteins are now generating tension.
Active tension is the additional tension produced by the interaction of actin and myosin.
Active tension is over and above the passive tension that is developed at a particular length. Total tension is the sum of passive and active tension at any given muscle length.
1. To axillary lymph nodes from region above umbilicus
2. To superficial inguinal lymph nodes from region below umbilicus
3. To lumbar lymph nodes from post wall of abdomen
Nodes Divided from their location into:
Parietal lymph nodes: lying behind the peritoneum and in close association with the larger blood vessels.
Visceral lymph nodes: which are found in relation to the visceral arteries.
1. Celiac Nodes (stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, spleen)
2. Superior Mesenteric Nodes (Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum , Appendix, Ascending colon, Transverse colon)
3. Inferior Mesenteric Nodes (Descending colon, Sigmoid colon, Upper part of rectum)