Early Frankish king; converted Franks to Christianity C. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
Battle of Tours
battle in 732 in which the Christian Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Muslim armies and stopped the Muslim advance into Europe
800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. His palace was at Aachen in central Europe, King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning, Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
One of the barbarian group known as Hungarian nomads., Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary, barbarian people who migrated into southern Europe, and in the early 10th century ad occupied Hungary, from where their horsemen raided into France, Italy, Germany, and even Spain
broke the last threats of unity in the Charlemagne empire, the vikings, a scandinavian people, were independent farmers ruled by land-owning chieftains. they were also skilled sailors. beginning in the late 8th century c.e., the vikings began raiding and pillaging communities along the coasts and rivers of europe. the vikings also engaged in trade and exploration in northern europe, the mediterranean, and even north america, where they briefly established a colony.
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
a mounted warrior who had great prestige in the Middle Ages; they dominated warfare in Europe
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
rules drawn up in 530 by Benedict, a monk, regulation monastic life. The rule emphasizes obedience, poverty and chastity and divides the day into periods of worship, work and study
Law-Church laws that applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, marriages and morals
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
st. francis of assisi
Italian saint who founded the Franciscan order of friars; treated all creatures, including animals, as spiritual brothers and sisters; born to wealthy merchant family and willingly gave up a life of comfort
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
naval vessels made and used by the Vikings used of commerce, exploration, and warfare. Long and skinny made of wood. Bow and stern had pointed tips that pointed upward.
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son, seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents)
coat of arms
the official symbols of a family, state, etc.
family identification used to identify dead warriors
trial by battle
the accused and the accuser fought a duel, the outcome of the duel determined guilty or innocent
a primitive method of determining a person's guilt or innocence by subjecting the accused person to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under divine control
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.