when the apoenzyme has all three slots filled: allosterik sites have co enzyme and inorganic co factor as well as the active site having substrate.
the turnover number doubles with each 10 degree increase up to the optimum temperature.
examble of doubling effect: if an enzyme at 20degrees C the turnover number is 100----
0 degrees=25**10 degrees=50*20 degrees=100**30 degrees= nothing, denaturization
pH effect on enzyme
every enzyme has an optimum pH. greater than +/- 3 on the pH will lead to denaturization.
4 principles of complete inhibition
1. both the substrate and the inhibitor must be chemically similiar. 2. the enzyme can react at the same rate with either the substrate or the inhibitor. 3. whichever is present in greater concentration(substrate or inhibitor) determine the degree of inhibition. 4. must be clinically reversible inhibition.
non competitive inhibition
the inhibitor goes to one of the allosterick sites. the advantage is that less inhibitor is needed. permanent or long lasting.
the cofactor is the activator. together, the apoenzyme and cofactor form a holoenzyme. if the cofactor is removed, the apoenzyme will not function.
what is ETS?
Electron Transfer System, aerobic only, series of redox reactions initiated by the presence of NADH₂ or FADH₂, occurs (1) in the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells and (2) in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells
Fatty Acid under anaerobic conditions
fatty acid goes through NOTHING...there is NO catabolism of fatty acid, it goes right to the cell membrane
Metabolic Fates of amino acids
(1) reassembles into cellular proteins and apoenzymes (2)production of purines (adenine and guarine) and pyrimidines (thymine, cytosine, and uracil). (3)peptidoglycan syntheis (4) other synthesis reactions (5) catabolism of amino acids. 1-4 are anabolism.
Pasteur Effect 1
(1) organisms are MOST EFFICIENT REPRODUCTIVELY under AEROBIC conditions (lots of ATP) and MOST EFFICIENT in the formation of CHEMICAL BYPRODUCTS (lactic acid, ethanol, and inorganic acids such as sulfuric, nitric and carbonic) under AEROBIC conditions.