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History Chapter 10: The Early Americas

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How did the Aztecs get to the Americas?
They crossed the Bering Strait
What led the Aztecs to settle in Central America?
Bison and Deer
In what way were the Aztecs more advanced than their European counterparts?
The number 0
What was the main material that Aztecs tools were made from?
Stone
When did the Aztecs reach the valleys of Central America ?
1250 AD
On what lake did the Aztecs settle upon?
Texcoco
How were the Aztecs supposed to know where they were supposed to build their capital city?
Eagle sitting upon a cactus eating a serpent
What was the capital city of the Aztecs?
Tenochtitlan
Who were the two temples on the pyramid honoring?
Sun and War God and the Rain God
How large was the Aztec empire?
100,000 square miles
How many people were under Aztec control?
200,000
What did the Aztecs believe was the food of the Gods?
Human Blood
In 1494, how many hearts were cut out in only four days?
20,000
Who was the greatest king of the Aztecs?
Montezuma
Whose return was Montezuma afraid of?
Quetzocoatl
Who was the Spanish leader that landed in Mexico?
Hernan Cortez
Who divided the new world between the Spanish and the Spanish and the Portuguese?
The Pope
Who served as a translator between the Aztecs and the Spanish?
Marina
Who did the Spanish take as a hostage?
Montezuma
Why did Cortes' men attack the Aztecs during their festival?
Human Sacrifice
Who killed Montezuma?
The Aztecs
Who did Cortez kill in order to escape the Aztecs?
Aztec Chieftain
What killed most of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan?
Smallpox
How many troops did Cortes bring with him in his second round with the Aztecs?
100,000
What city was built upon Tenochtitlan?
Mexico city
The two hemispheres suddenly changed when?
Columbus reached America
America got its name because
mapmakers wrongly believed that Amerigo Vespucci saw parts of the New World before Columbus
Why did Columbus call the natives Indians?
He thought he was in India
What was the estimated population of the western hemisphere population in the 1400s?
70 million
True or false: Indiginous people called themselves Indians
False
Where was Columbus trying to reach?
India
Where did natvives come from?
Siberia
Where was the Mayan civilization located
Central America
What type of writing system did the Maya use?
Heiroglyphycs
Between what dates did the Mayan civilization flourish?
250-900 AD
How did missionaries destroy Mayan history?
They burned books
How many books survived?
4
With what subject did the Mayans associate their mathematics with?
Astronomy
What are some of the unsettling aspects of the Maya?
Deformed heads, teeth, and they used drugs
What country would eventually decipher the Mayan glyphs?
Russia
What did the kings use as repayment to the Gods?
Blood
What happened to the losers of the early ball games?
Death
What do modern shamans use to make sacrifices to the Gods?
Chicken Blood
Why did the Mayan civilization come to an end?
Faith was lost
Today increasing numbers of archaeologists have concluded that the migrants to the Americas
traveled by both foot and boat
The earliest civilization in North America that was known for their spear points were who?
The clovis
The chinanampas was an
agricultural technique
The main crop grown by amerindians was
maize
What year did copper reach mexico?
3000 BCE
What is milpa?
Agricultural plant
What agricultural plant was chewed?
Coca
In the Aztec society, the head of the family was both a _______ and a ______________.
Provider
Warrior
In Aztec society, social status and mobility depended upon
Military performance
The Aztec's first king came from which group?
Toltec
Who were the Techutli?
Provincial governenors
If a boy captured a prisoner he would be a
iyac
Scholars now believe that Aztec Emperors were
elected
In Aztec society the maceualtin were
considered military service and honor
Olmec cities did not have
huge defensive walls
What year did earthworks or mounds begin to appear in North America?
2500 BCE
Around 900 BCE the center of early Olmec culture was likely destroyed by
invaders from the north
What was the largest city in Norte Chico?
Caral
Olmec society did not pass down
egalitarian social structure
What are khipu?
Strings with knots
The richest concentration of mounds are where?
Ohio and Mississippi Valley
Where did the name for Maya come from?
Zamna
Mayan civilization did not decline from
invaders from the south
The entire Maya region might have had around
14 million
What document describes Mayan belief?
The Peru Vuh
The largest Mayan religious and ceremonial center was
Chichen Itza
Who established the city of Tula?
Topiltzin
Who were important mound building people?
Hopewell
The leader of the Mississippian people had religious responsibilities and managed
long distance trades
Mound building was not for
defense
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