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Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?
Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:
lacks A and B antigens
Which of the following is considered to be a compensation mechanism for individuals with anemia?
Which of the following best describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?
megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells
What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?
vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination
What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?
deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis
Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?
The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood.
Why do abnormally low hemoglobin values develop with pernicious anemia?
shorter lifespan of erythrocytes
Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle-cell anemia?
Erythrocytes change shape of when hypoxia occurs.
Which of the following applies to sickle-cell trait?
Sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia.
What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?
There is failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.
Which of the following occur when disseminated intravascular coagulation develops?
multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors
In individuals with acute leukemia, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to:
1. decreased hemoglobin
Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because:
many circulating leukocytes are immature
Which of the following is typical of Hodgkin's disease?
initial tumor is single, painless, enlarged lymph node, often cervical
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma differs from Hodgkin's lymphoma in that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually presents as
multiple, scattered, enlarged and painless lymph nodes
Which of the following statements apply to hemochromocytosis? It is:
a metabolic error leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin, causing damage to organs
All of the following apply to vitamin K EXCEPT:
the bone marrow requires it to synthesize hemoglobin
Leukemia is sometimes linked to chromosome abnormalities, as evidenced by:
the presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
A high percentage of blast cells in the leukocyte population indicates a poor prognosis for an individual with:
acute myelogenous leukemia
Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?
Which of the following applies to the condition disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?
It is usually a secondary complication.
Which of the following applies to the etiology of aplastic anemia? It is
a. idiopathic in many cases
c. predisposed by exposure to myelotoxins
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