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Milady esthetics chapter 7: basics of chemistry
Terms in this set (58)
Protective barrier of lipids and secretions on the surface of the skin.
acid-alkali neutralization reactions
When an acid is mixed with an alkali in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (H,O) and a salt.
Substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, and turn litmus paper from blue to red.
The gaseous mixture that makes up the Earth's atmosphere. It is odorless, colorless, and generally consists of about 1 part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen by volume.
Also known as bases; compounds that react with acids to form salts; have a pH above 7.0 (neutral), taste bitter, and turn litmus paper from red to blue.
An ion with a negative electrical charge
Used to stabilize skin care products by preventing oxidation that would otherwise cause a product to turn rancid and decompose . They are vitamins such as A · C , and E , which can be applied topically in products or taken internally to increase healthy body functions
The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element that still retains the propertiesof that element,
lon with a positive electrical charge.
Change in the chemical properties of a substance that is the result of a chemical reaction in which a new substance or substances are formed that have properties different from the original.
Combinations of two or more atoms of different elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties.
Those characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions
Rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
Also known as compounds; a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
The simplest form of matter, cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity
Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions
An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
Unstable molecules that cause inflammation, disease, and biochemical aging in the body, especially wrinkling and sagging of the skin. Free radicals are super oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free radical in the process that are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules (often oxygen)
Matter without a definite shape or size. No fixed volume or shape; takes the shape of its container
Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; the lightest element known
Chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen; a colorless liquid with a ch haracteristic odo and a slightly acid taste
Easily absorbs moisture; in chemistry terms, capable of combining with or attracting water water-loving).
An anion (an ion with a negative electrical charge) with one oxygen and one hydrogen atom,
Liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.
The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen.
An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
The separation of an atom or molecule into positive or negative ions.
Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).
Matter that has volume, no definite shape and will take shape of its container, such as water
A method of displaying data in multiples of 10
Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
Capable of being mixed; liquids that are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions.
A chemical combination of two or more atoms.
A colorless gaseous element is found chiefly in ammonia and nitrates. that makes up about four-fifths of the air in our atmosphere and
oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion
Oil droplets dispersed in a water with the aid of an emulsifying agent.
Study of substances that contain carbon.
Either the addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen; a chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
Also known as redox; chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.
To combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen.
The most abundant element on Earth.
The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen; relative degree of acidity and alkalinity of a substance. pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions.
A measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance; the pH scale has a range of 0 to 14 with 7 being a neutral. A pH below 7 is an acidic solution; a pH above 7 is an alkaline solution.
Change in the form or physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance.
Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause chemical change in the identity of the substance.
Combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition and in any proportions.
Chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.
The process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance through a chemical reaction.
A state of matter that is rigid with a definite size and shape, such as ice
A substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution.
A uniform mixture of two or more mutually miscible substances.
A substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution.
states of matter
The three different physical forms of matter solid, liquid, and gas
Acronym for surface active agent; reduce surface tension between the skin and the product to increase product spreadability; allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify
Unstable mixtures of two or more immiscible substances.
Most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75 percent of the Earth's surface and about 65 percent of the human body
water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion
Droplets of water dispersed in an oil.
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