Which of the following wander through the interstitial fluid and consume any bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter?
What substance, produced by virus-infected cells, diffuses to neighboring cells to help them fight a viral infection?
A researcher who detects a higher-than-normal amount of interferon in a laboratory rat would correctly conclude that
the rat has, or recently had, a viral infection.
When you cut yourself, the damaged cells immediately release chemical alarm signals, such as
The major result of the inflammatory response is to
remove contaminating microorganisms and initiate repair of damaged tissues.
Bacterial infections can cause a serious, potentially fatal systemic inflammatory response called
The two main functions of the lymphatic system are
returning tissue fluid to the circulatory system and fighting infections.
Some viral diseases are dangerous only when a person is infected for the first time; subsequent infections produce only mild symptoms or go entirely unnoticed. This pattern can be explained by the action of _____.
memory cells that trigger a secondary immune response
A virus enters your system and successfully invades and infects a cell. At this point it is vulnerable to recognition or attack by _____.
When a B cell binds to a virus or other pathogen, it _____.
becomes activated, divides rapidly, and thereby mounts a specialized response against the pathogen.
Antibodies are _____.
specialized proteins that attach to pathogens and disable them or mark them for destruction by immune cells
In the immune response, the end goal is to disable or kill pathogens that invade the body. But first, antibody proteins or proteins in immune cell membranes must recognize and bind to invaders. This is a challenge, given the vast diversity of pathogens that can infect us. To meet this challenge, immune proteins _____.
are diverse: each immune protein can bind to only one or a few pathogens, but immune proteins are tremendously diverse, so the system is likely to possess a "match" to nearly any pathogen
Which of the following statements about the humoral immune response is true?
The humoral immune response defends primarily against bacteria and viruses present in body fluids.
The adaptive immune system is capable of mounting specific responses to particular microorganisms because
the body contains an enormous diversity of lymphocytes, each with the ability to respond to a different antigen.
Which of the following statements regarding antigens and antibodies is false?
Each antibody has only one antigen-binding site.
A primary immune response is
the immune response elicited by the first exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen.
describes the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes after they have been activated by an antigen.
When a B cell first interacts with its particular antigen, the B cell
differentiates and develops into a clone of antibody-producing effector cells.
Which of the following distinguishes the secondary immune response from the primary immune response?
The secondary response is faster and stronger.
The basic function of activated T cells is to battle
pathogens that have already entered body cells.
HIV is a virus that is particularly difficult to eradicate
because it mutates to produce new drug-resistant strains.
Why has it been so difficult for researchers to develop effective antivirals for HIV?
because HIV has a high mutation rate
Which of the following diseases is thought to be an autoimmune disease?
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Which of the following compounds is produced and secreted by mast cells during an allergic reaction?