118 terms

History Chapter 10: The Early Americas

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How did the Aztecs get to the Americas?
They crossed the Bering Strait
What led the Aztecs to settle in Central America?
Bison and Deer
In what way were the Aztecs more advanced than their European counterparts?
The number 0
What was the main material that Aztecs tools were made from?
Stone
When did the Aztecs reach the valleys of Central America ?
1250 AD
On what lake did the Aztecs settle upon?
Texcoc ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg
How were the Aztecs supposed to know where they were supposed to build their capital city?
Eagle sitting upon a cactus eating a serpent
What was the capital city of the Aztecs?
Tenochtitlan
Who were the two temples on the pyramid honoring?
Sun and War God and the Rain God
How large was the Aztec empire?
100,000 square miles
How many people were under Aztec control?
200,000
What did the Aztecs believe was the food of the Gods?
Human Blood
In 1494, how many hearts were cut out in only four days?
20,000
Who was the greatest king of the Aztecs?
Montezuma
Whose return was Montezuma afraid of?
Quetzocoatl
Who was the Spanish leader that landed in Mexico?
Hernan Cortez
Who divided the new world between the Spanish and the Spanish and the Portuguese?
The Pope
Who served as a translator between the Aztecs and the Spanish?
Marina
Who did the Spanish take as a hostage?
Montezuma
Why did Cortes' men attack the Aztecs during their festival?
Human Sacrifice
Who killed Montezuma?
The Aztecs
Who did Cortez kill in order to escape the Aztecs?
Aztec Chieftain
What killed most of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan?
Smallpox
How many troops did Cortes bring with him in his second round with the Aztecs?
100,000
What city was built upon Tenochtitlan?
Mexico city
The two hemispheres suddenly changed when?
Columbus reached America
America got its name because
mapmakers wrongly believed that Amerigo Vespuccisawxparts of the New World before Columbus
Why did Columbus call the natives Indians?
He thought he was in India
What was the estimated population of the western hemisphere population in the 1400s?
70 million
True or false: Indiginous people called themselves Indians
False
Where was Columbus trying to reach?
India
Where did natvives come from?
Siberia
The name for maya comes from what?
Zamma
Aztec slaves could purchase what?
Their freedom
Were the Spanish impressed with the aztecs
Yes
tlamaitl
aztec landless serfs
The maceualtin were what
Considered for military service and honor
Scholars today believe Aztec emperors were what?
Elected
In his 1st campaign if a boy captured a prisoner, he would become what? (or worrier)
iyac
Tecuhtli
provincal governers
The Aztec King came from what group?
The toltecs
In aztec society, social status and nobility depended on what?
military performance
In Aztec society the head of the family was what?
A provider and a worrier
What was associated with war?
Flowers
For the aztecs, what was stressed?
Violence in religion
The earliest ancestors of the aztecs spoke what?
Nuhuatl
What was the capital city for the Aztecs?
Tenochtitlan
What was the feathered serpent god?
Queatzalcoatl
The name Huitzilopochtil translates as what?
Blue Hummingbird of the south
To gather sacrificial victims, the Aztecs went of Campains called what?
Flower Wars
What did the sun need to keep moving across the sky
Fluids; Human blood
The aztec success in conquering Mexico, can primarily be attributed to what?
The association of war as part of their faith
The early aztec people settled on the shores and islands of what body of water?
Lake Texcoco
The Inca thrived where?
Ecuador
In Inca society, religious concepts created what?
imperialist idea
Who made the Inca language?
Pachacuti
The Inca king, Ataulhualpa encountered initial spaniards entering the kingdom led by whom
Pizzarro
What aided in the growth communication in the Inca empire?
The system of Roads
Inca rulers sought to prevent rebellion by what?
Deporting conquered peoples to new areas
What name was given to the Incan language
Quechua
All of the following were features of the Inca "cult of the royal mummies" except that the dead ruler...
Was carried at the head of the armies
What groups preceded the Inca in their rule in ancient Persia?
Chavin and Moche
Andean agriculture depended primarily on what?
Pototoes
What served as the fundamental social unit of Inca Society
Ayllu
The mita in the Inca empire was what?
The system of conscripting labor from villages
During the marriage ceremony, what did the bride and groom exchange
Sandals
The Spaniards referred to the Inca nobility as what
Big Ears
The Curaces the __________, who conducted relations with outsiders
Headmen
In Inca Society...
Polygamy was illegal
The word for Inca nobility was what?
Oregones
Was travel allowed in Inca society
No
The Inca took care of whom?
the poor and aged, and distributed grains in times of need.
Who helped arrange marriages?
The Inca Government
Scholars attribute the decline of Mayan Civilization after about 900 CE to all of the following except 1. constant warfare, drought,invaders from the south, exhaustion from the lands fertility.
Invaders from the south
The entire Mayan region had how many inhabitants?
14 million
Mayans made notable intellectual achievements in the area of
astronomy, mathematics, the recording of history
What document gives us a view on mayan creation, good and evil, and the purpose of life
Popul Vuh
The largest Mayan religious and ceremonial center was what
Tikal
Who established the city of Tula
Tepiltzin
Where was the pyramid of the Sun located?
Teotihuacan
True or false: Public affairs for trading happened on a daily basis
False
Olmec cities featured what?
Large private homes for the elite, water reservoirs and ritual centers
By what year did earthworks or mounds begin to appear in North America
2500 bce
Around 900 BCE the center of early olmec culture was likely destroyed by whom?
Invaders from the North
What was the largest city in Norte Chico
Caral
What aspects of Olmec society were passed on?
Monumental sculpture, ceremonial human sacrifice and artistic techniques and a system of writing
khipu
A pattern of string woven to record information
Where are the richest concentration of Mound buildings found?
Ohio and the Mississippi Valley
What was an important aspect of Olmec society
Long distance trade
Who was the first society with cities in MesoAmerica
The olmecs
Acheologists have concluded the migrants to the Americas...
were primarily hunters of Big Game
The earliest civiliation in North America was identified by a spear point which gave groups what name
Clovis
The chinampas of the Ameridians in central mexico was a
agricultural technique
The main crop grown by Amerindians was called?
Maize
By what year did copper reach mexico
3000 BCE
What is a milpa
A field in which many products were grown
What agricultural product when chewed, increased stamina and kept individuals warm.
Coca
People throughout the America's domesticated what
dogs
People throughout the andes domesticated what
llamas and alpacas
Groups living high in the Andes relied on what
Potatoes
The two hemispheres were radically changed when
Columbus made his journey across the open sea
America got its name because
Mapmakers wrongly believed Amerigo Vespuccci saw parts of the new world before columbus
Why did columbus call the natives in the new world "Indians"
He believed he was an Indian
What was the total population of the western hemisphere in the 1400's
70 Muslims
All of the following are true regarding the term indian except what?
it is a term used by the indigenous people that columbus met in the new world
What destination was Columbus trying to reach on his initial voyage?
India/Asia/China
The most accurate assessment of the history of the Americas is that they
Crossed into America from Russia Siberia
What percent of the population died within the first decades of European contact
90%
The term "new world" came from whom?
Amerigo Vespucci
An important mound building people who existed in present day Ohio were the who
The Hopewell
The leader of the Mississippi people had religious responsibilities and managed what
Long Distance Trade
Mound buildings had many purposes, what were they?
a way to honor the gods, burial chambers for all individuals, platforms for houses
What led to the decline of the Hohokam and Anasazi
Drought, Deforestation and soil erosion
The missippian mound builders...
were strongly influenced by Mesoamercia
What group stablished itself near the Mississpian and Missouri rivers in Illinios
Cahokia
The cahokia mounds
include mounds larger than the largest egyptian pyramid
Largest burial mounds were for who
religious leaders
Who were the most extensive mound builders
The hopewell