Hist 115 final

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Terms in this set (61)
conference committeeA committee that settles Senate and House differences in bills.joint committeelegislative committee composed of members of both housesselect committeeCongressional committees appointed for a limited time and purposeJames MadisonFather of the ConstitutionbureaucracyA system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of government.federal bureaucracyagencies and the employees of the executive branch of governmentEOPWhite House office, omb, national security council, office of homeland securitycabinet departmentone of the 15 major departments of the Executive Branchindependent agencyfederal board or commission that is not part of any cabinet departmentindependent commissionA regulatory agency run by a small group of commissioners independent of political controlgovernment corporationa business operated by the governmentpresidential successionvp, speaker of the house, president pro temp, cabinet department heads by creation22nd amendmentLimits the president to two terms.impeachTo accuse government officials of misconduct in officeelectoral collegeRepresentatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a presidentthe modern presidencyWWII and the great depression made thisandrew jacksonignored supreme court and used tons of veto powerAbraham Lincolntook the writ of habeus corpushabeas corpusConstitutional protection against unlawful imprisonmentexecutive orderA rule issued by the president that has the force of lawdual court systema court system made up of both federal and state courtsjurisdiction(n.) an area of authority or control; the right to administer justiceoriginal jurisdictionthe power of a court to hear a case first, before any other courtappellate jurisdictionthe authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower courtdistrict courtslift the burden of the supreme courtcircuit courts of appealsCourts with appellate jurisdiction that hear appeals from the decisions of lower courts.supreme courtthe highest judicial court in a country or state.constitutional courtsCreated by congress pursuant to its authority in article IIIlegislative courtsCourts created under Congress's Article I powers.judicial reviewAllows the court to determine the constitutionality of lawsMarbury v. MadisonEstablished judicial reviewrule of 4when at least 4 of its 9 justices agree that a case should be put on a court's docketamicus curiaeA brief submitted by a "friend of the court"majority opinionA court opinion reflecting the views of the majority of the judgesdissenting opiniona signed opinion in which one or more justices disagree with the majority viewconcurring opiniona statement written by a justice who votes with the majority, but for different reasonsstare decisis"let the decision stand"precedentHow similar cases have been decided in the past.judicial restraintA judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles.judicial activismview that the courts should be lawmaking, policymaking bodiesAdam SmithScottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism.MercantilismThe theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buysTariffA tax on imported goods; limits economyeconomicsscience of decision makingopportunity costthe loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen.equilibrium pricethe price that balances quantity supplied and quantity demandedlaw of supply and demandWhen demand goes up, supply goes down; when supply goes up, demand goes down.invisible handterm economists use to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplacespecializationthe development of skills in a specific kind of workeconomic decision ruleKeep increasing quantities produced as long as marginal benefit exceeds marginal cost.inelasticityif price rises, quantity demanded does not change, or changes only a little