ANAT/PHYS II Exam 1
Terms in this set (87)
What are the endocrine glands?
major endocrine glands, pure endocrine glands, and secondary endocrine glands
Major endocrine glands
located throughout the body. Bulk of the gland is comprised of support cels with branched networks of hormone-producing cells. Organs that double as major glands- pancreas, ovaries, testes
Pure endocrine glands
Has only hormonal function. Ex) thyroid gland
Amino acid based hormones
• Most hormones fit this category
• Can be derived from individual amino acids, or full proteins
• Water soluble
•Amino acids are soluble in water & they move around easily in the blood but only cells with surface receptors are affected as the membrane keeps large, polar substances out.
Steroid based hormones
• Derived from cholesterol
• Only a few hormones are in this category, but they are critically important
• Lipid soluble
•Steroids are not soluble in water and easily pass through the membrane. Cells cannot stop these hormones from entering and acting on internal receptors.
Solubility in hormones
•Water soluble hormones act on protein receptors embedded in the plasma membrane
•Solubility determines how quickly hormones influence the body and where they act
•Water soluble hormones act on protein receptors embedded in the plasma membrane, The target cell must have the receptor for the hormone to be of any use, Allows for the relatively directed activation of certain cells
Secondary messenger systems
•The amino acid based hormone cannot pass directly through the cell membrane. The hormone then attaches to a receptor protein that spans the membrane. This activates the receptor protein which causes the g-protein to change. The g-protein attaches & replaces its GDP with a GTP. The G protein is released and the hormone is released. This activates adenylate cyclase, which creates cAMP, which acts as a signaling molecule. This signaling molecule
•G coupled protein- responsible for most cross membrane hormonal signaling
•Secondary messenger system- allow for the transduction of the signal through the cell membrane
How are hormonal levels controlled?
•They can respond to blood levels and direct neural stimulation.
•Most response to the presence of other hormones***
•Control is exerted by hormonal half-life, which is the amount of time it takes for half the original amount to break down.
•Below and connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk-like infundibulum
Contains the posterior & anterior lobe
•Produces oxytocin (peptide, stimulates uterine contracting & milk secretion) & antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (peptide, stimulates water reabsorption via increased kidney function)
produces growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone & prolactin
Hormone that controls overall anabolism for human growth
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Hormone that regulates development & activity of the thyroid gland
Hormone that activates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids as a response to stress
Follicle-stimulating hormone & Luteinizing hormone
Hormone that stimulates gonadal hormone production & in women controls ovarian follicle maturation
Hormone that stimulates milk production
What controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland?
•Posterior is controlled by direct neural connections with the hypothalamus
•The anterior lobe is controlled by neural cells that secrete something outside of the lobe of the anterior lobe which causes the hormones to release some hormones.
•Dual-lobed gland attached to the trachea
•Produces thyroid hormone (TH)
•Thyroxine (T4)- is the major form, 4 iodines attached
•Triiodothyronine (T3)- created from T4 at the target tissue. 3 iodines attached
Thyroid hormone information
TH comes from colloid, the thyroid maintains a certain amount of this basic building block of thyroid hormone and it uses it over time when it changed to T3 or T4.
•Embedded in the back of the thyroid
•Produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)
•PTH is responsible for controlling calcium ion concentration in the blood.
•Works in conjunction with bone-remodeling & kidney processes
Adrenal gland hormone produced
Produces corticosteroids, which easily enter almost all cells
Adrenal gland layers (top to bottom)
Zona glomerulosa, Zona fasciculata & Zona reticularis, adrenal medulla
Produces mineralocorticoids & aldosterone
Produces glucocorticoids & cortisol
Produces epinephrine & norepinephrine
•Directly responds to visual stimulation by sunlight
•Located in the diencephalon
•Produces melatonin- responsible for maintain circadian rhythms
•It produces insulin (beta cells) & glucagon (alpha cells)
•Insulin causes sugar to be stored and made into long chains of glycogen
•Glucagon causes that chain to be broken down
Hormones released by the gonads
release testosterone & estrogen
Hormones released by adipose tissue
release leptin- controls appetite by signaling an excess of fat storage
The heart hormones release
releases atrial natriuretic peptide- helps control blood volume & pressure via sodium ion levels
Hormones release by the kidneys
release erythropoietin- signals an increase in red blood cell production in the bone marrow
Hormones released by the skin
produces cholecalciferol- activated by UV radiation & assists in calcium uptake in the digestive system
Hormones released by the thymus
produces a number of peptide hormones- may be involved in immune response
What is blood?
A connective tissue
What is bloods function?
transport, regulation, & protection
What does blood consist of?
Plasma, leukocytes, platelets & erthrocytes
Made of water and this is important because it contains things that are soluble and it is where you would find more soluble things in the blood, sugar & ions
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
•Responsible for the movement of oxygen to tissues & the removal of carbon dioxide from tissues. They are good at this because they contain 95% hemoglobin, which is necessary for oxygen & carbon dioxide movement.
•They cannot divide or perform aerobic respiration & they lack most of the abilities with survival in other cells.
•Oxygen moves from the high concentration of the lungs to the low concentration of the blood. Oxygen then moves from the high concentration of the blood to the low concentration in tissues.
"Blood making", occurs only in the red marrow of bones, red marrow changes to yellow marrow as an adult but it remains proximal epiphyses of the femur
-How red blood cell production is controlled
Leukocytes (white blood cell)
-5 major kinds
-neutrophil (50-70%), lymphocytes (25%), monocytes (3-8%), eosinophil (2-4%), basophil (.5-1%)
(50-70%) fight bacterial infections by using defensins stored in visible granules
(25%) destroy viral-laden & cancerous cells, produce antibodies, associated with the lymphatic
(3-8%) differentiates into macrophages in tissues, responsible for the phagocytosis necessary to clear wounds and chronic infections, activate lymphocytes, lack granules
(2-4%) fight parasitic worms using granules full of digesting enzymes
(.5-1%) release histamines which causes inflammation and act as a signal for other WBCs
•Small pieces of a larger cell that is multinucleate
•Come from megakaryocytes
1) Vascular spasm- smooth muscle contracts, causing vasoconstriction
2) Platelet plug formation- injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibers & platelets release chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky; platelet plug forms
3) Coagulation- fibrin forms a mesh that traps red blood cells and platelets, forming the clot
Responsible for the movement of blood throughout the body
•Accepts oxygen-poor blood from the body & pumps oxygen-rich blood back
Takes oxygen-rich blood from the lungs & returns oxygen-poor blood back
decreases the friction caused by heart movement
made of cardiac muscle & is responsible for the pumping action of the heart
The heart is covered by the double-layered pericardium.
Right ventricle of the heart
doesn't have to be strong, has a thin, weak wall
Left ventricle of the heart
very thick layered & has to push blood all over the body
Cardiac vs. Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle resembles skeletal muscle because it is striated and contracts via the same sarcomere sliding mechanism. Cardiac muscle cells connect to other cells via gap junctions. Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria.
•Contains the pacemaker cells that activate the others.
•These cells move to the atrioventricular node and then through the remainder of the myocardium
How does the body alter heart rate?
•The degree of stretching of heart muscle, caused by the flood of blood back into the heart can increase heart rate.
•Chemical signals alter heart rate
Carry blood away from the heart
3 types of arteries
•Elastic- largest & have thickest walls, found nearest the wall, vesicle can flex & coil, associated with heartbeat & flexibility
•Muscular- next smallest, increase in relative amount of smooth muscle allows for vasoconstriction
•Arterioles- the smallest, act as the gateway to the body location or the organ.
carry blood towards the heart
small & join together for form veins
Responsible for gas exchange at the cellular level types of capillaries & what each one lets through. The thinnest blood vessel, only thick enough to allow RBCs to move single-file. The size of capillaries limits the rate or blood flow and allows for he diffusion of gases and nutrients.
3 types of capillaries
•Continuous- less permeable due to substantial tight junctions
•Fenestrated- contains small holes in the endothelium that allows larger solutes to move through walls
•Sinusoid- "leaky" and allow cells & extensive solutes to move through the walls
stem cells that can differentiate to repair capillaries or scar tissue
2 distinct types of vessels in capillary beds
•Vascular shunts directly connect arterioles and venules and allow to pass through the tissue
•True capillaries allow for the exchange of gas and branch through tissues
control the flow of blood intot the true capillaries.
•Blood flow is directly related to both blood pressure and resistance
-Increase in blood pressure increases blood flow
•Blood pressure decreases the further away from the heart
•Blood pressure past the capillaries is very low
movement of muscles forces blood through the veins
respiration causes pressure changes that draw blood upwards
Heart rate & circulation
•The cardiovascular center and vasomotor center are located in the medulla
•The cardiovascular center controls heart rate & the vasomotor center controls the diameter of blood vessels
•The brainstem is responsible for the most basic of functions so heart regulation evolved very early.
•Increased in stretching signals an increase in blood pressure, decreased stretching signals a decrease in blood pressure
•Capable of quick changes
High brain centers
•Additional control is exerted by the higher brain centers
•It is impossible for the cortex and hypothalamus to directly affect blood flow so signaling the medulla is required.
•Everything has to go through the medulla
How do hormones function in terms of maintaining blood flow
1) Short term control- how dilated or constricted the vessels are
2) Long term control- changing blood volume itself, most has to do with the kidneys because they control blood volume for the most
•A decrease in arterial pressure triggers the initial renin release
•Renal uptake of water & salts is triggered by the adrenal hormone aldosterone
Other mechanisms of action of angiotensin
-Causes the release of antidiuretic hormone
-Activates the hypothalamus to signal thirsts
-Acts as a vasoconstrictor
Nitric Oxide function
•Metabolic control is based on chemical signals from nitric oxide.
•It is a vasodilator that is released when tissue nutrients are not being met
basically collects that interstitial fluid and works it way back up into the circulatory system so that you do not lose most of the fluid that you lost when the bulk fluid exchange happened at the blood capillary level. It acts as the 2nd circulatory system of the body
•Basically immune function, they are broken into 2 large categories, primary & secondary
•Primary- actually producing the lymphocytes
•Secondary- any places that the lymphocytes do something
•Very permeable due to the lack of tight junctions
•Valves open due to collagen fiber attachments when surrounding cells expand from excess fluid retention
•Allows for the maintain of fluid levels as it only moves when necessary
•These valves capture fluid proteins & potentially microorganisms
•Basically checkpoints in the lymphatic system
•These filters lymph of debris & microorganisms
•Activate the immune response if an antigen is recognized
•Found throughout the body mainly where blood vessels and capillaries come together
•The white pulp consists of lymphocytes that monitor blood for antigens
•The red pulp filters old RBCs and platelets from the blood
•It is a lymphoid organ and a cardiovascular organ
•MALT- (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues) make up the remainder of the functional lymphoid system
•Monitor entry points of the body from the mucous membranes that line most entrances
•Includes tonsils, Peyer's patches, and appendix
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