69 terms

Trif 5-Zoonotic Bacteria, Chlamydia, Rickettsia, etc.

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What are zoonotic bateria?
bacteria found in animal reservoirs...transmit to humans
What is bacillus anthracis?
gram positive rods with exposure to animal wool/hide..spores are used in bioterrorisms
What are the three major syndromes of anthrax?
cutaneous, inhalation, GI
cutaneous syndrome/
painless papule to vesicle in 2 days plus edema and lymphadenopathy....RUPTURE! ulcer gets BLACK ESCHAR.....
inhalational:
phagocytosied and carried to LN by phagocyte....germinate and release toxins...HEMORRHAGIC MEDIASTINITIS
Clinical anthrax:
fever, sweats, hemoptysis, stridor.....bacteremia leading to shock.
What is Francisella tularemia?
gram negative coccobacillus
what about Francis?
direct contact of deer cattle RABBITS.....tick bite or deer fly. .....ocular-glandular, ulcero-glandular (LN)
Yersinia pestic ?
gram negative INTRACELLULAR
what about Yersinia?
transmitted by fleabite or aerosols...wild rodents.....caused many plagues
What is the transmission ?
droplet, inhalation (phenumonia of STRIKING NEUTROPHILIA), airborne, physical contact, F-O ,indirect contact, vector....LYMPHATIC INVASION= BUBOES....BLOOD INVASION= SEPSIS with NEUTROPHILIA
what are the three plagues/
1. bubonic: black death because of necrosis and hemorhage
2. septicemis (no buboes)
3. pneumonic (inhale)
what is the morphology for yersinia?
bubo shows massive proliferation, EXUDATE with tissue swelling, tissue necrosis, hemorrage and thrombosis
What is Brucella?
gram negative rod
Brucella info?
infects monocutes and macrophages....transmission via direct contact of animals, inhales, contaminated meat/milk

militent: sheep, aborted cows, suis pig, canis = dog
What is the infection in brucella?
reticulo-endothelial system causing hepatosplenomegaly.....waxingwany fever.

-complications: visceral organs
What is Listeria monocytogenes?
gram + rod
Listeria info?
intracellular, invade phagocytic cells.....food borne infections from dairy products and melons (canteloupes).....
susceptible patients in listeria?
1. pregnant women: bacteremia...listeria crosses the placenta! chorio-amniotis...
2. neonates: neonatal sepsis (granulomatosis infantisptica)
3. elderly: exudative meningitis, complicate with deaf, epilepsy, brain damage
Borrelia burgdoferi?
spirochete! Ixodes deer tick. multiple organs with three stages
Stae 1:
spirochetes multiply in skin at site of tick.....expanding redness with pale center = erythema chronicum migrans
stage 2:
early dissemination (weeks to months)...hematogenous spread. lymphadenopathy, joint pain, cardiac arrhythmia, cranial neuritis
stage 3
late dissemination (2-3 years after bite....chronic arthritis and encephalitis
what is morphology for borrelia burgdoferi
infilatration with lymphocytes plasma cells and histiocytes, edema, arteritis.
what is Borrelia recurrentis?
relapsing fever....spirochete causing two forms. epidemic and endemic
Epidemic relapsing fever
BODY-LOUSE transmitted that infects only humans....overcrowding
endemic relapsing fever
RODENT-HUMAN through bites of a soft bodied tick
morphology of Borrelia recurrentis?
enlarged spleen with congestion alternating fever with apyrexia.....and petechiae from DIC
What is Leptospira?
L. icterohemorrhagica (renal tubules of rodents)....spirochetes from rat urine contaminated water...clinically: Weils disease
Weil disease?
high fever, jaundice, hepatitis, meningitis, acuture tubular necrosis,
What is Chlamydia?
obligate intracellular parasite that is GRAM NEGATIVE!
Chlamydia general information
causes intracytoplasmic inclusions....C. pneumonia: atypical pneymonia.....C. psitacci: avian reservoir and atypical pneumonia.....C. trachomatis
C. trachomatis types
ABC causes follicular keratoconjunctivitis; D-K causes urethritis, neonatal pneumonia and inclusion conjunctivitis. L1-L3: lymphogranuloma venerum
C. Psitaci
"Ornithosis"....inhales of dried shit from parrots....bite of bird and direct contact with a patient....1-3 week incubation....Microscopy: alveolar damage with INTRACYTOPLASMIC BODIES..

**can cause lethal disease of focal necroses and mononuclear infiltrate
Chlamydia urethritis/cervcitis:
70% of infected women have it and asymptomatic....MOST COMMON STD IN THE USA...men get prostatitis and epididymitis...women et cervicitis and salpingitis and PID
What is chlamydia inclusion conjunctivitis?
chlamudia inclusions in EXUDATE and lymphocytic infiltration in tissue.

get it from mom or from swimming pools.
C. trachomatis ABC
leading global cause of blindness via scarring....TRACHOMA. transmission: flies, DC, fomites. MORPHOLOGY: suppuration- deeper infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma. LYMPHOID cell follicles....ulcerration and vascular invasions, fibroblast overgrowth scarring.
C. trachomatis L1 L2 L3
stage 1: small unlcer with neutrophil/granuloma and chlamydia inclusions.....stage 2 : buboes ! suppuratiive granulomatous lymphadenitis, matted nodes, stellate abscess, fistula discharging pus.....stage 3: chronic inflammatory, dense fibrosis, genital lymphdedema (vulvar elephantiasis)
Rickettsiae
pleimorphic (rod and cocci) looking intracellular GRAM NEGATIVE
What is the transmission and pathogenesis of Ricketts?
arthropod bite/ aerosol from animal excreta...enter host by induced endocytosis....multiply in different cell types. NO TOXIN FORMATION.. need good CD8 to kill these...gamma interferon
Rickettsia prowazeki
endothelil cells....Epidemic Typhus by body lice
R. rickettsii
endothelial cells..Rocky Mountain Spotted fever....ticks
R. mooseri
endothelial cells of humans and rodents...Murine Typhus by fleas
Ehrlichia chaffensis
infects monocytes and granulocytes....non specific fever...by ticks
Coxiella burnetti
infects macrophages...Q fever - inhaled aerosols
Bardtonellla
pericellular infection- lice
B. quintana
Trench Fever
B. henselae
endocarditis in homeless, septicemia in others. CAT SCRATCH fever. inoculated benign lympho reticulosis
Diagnosis of Rickettsia?
skin biopsy/ immunoflurescene staining and specific serum AB tiers....direct culture
morphology/microscopy of Rickettsia?
skin rash, skin eschar (well circumscribed dark crusted)....mononuclear infiltrate. focal vascular inflammation, microthrombi, ischemia, hemorrhae
Louse Borne Epidemic tyohus
R. prowazeki...man louse man....poor sanitation. Contaminated louse shit penetrate the skin abrasions
What is the triad for this disease?
fever, HA, maculopapular rash apathy stupor, coma.....
microscopy:
typhus nodule : small vessel lesion in brain with infiltration
What is Sporadic Typhus?
Brill-Zinsser disease....reinfection of dormant Rick in the spleen
What is the diagnosis?
Weil felix reax, immunoflourescene and antibodies
What is Rocky mountain spotted fever?
R. rickettsii.....blood sucking ticks of Dermacentor's salivary glands....TICKS ARE BOTH THE VECTORS AND THE RESERVOIR
Clinical manifest of RMSF?
rash of palms and soles....maculopapular and becomes purpuric...spreads centripetally....ESCHAR at the bite site... necrotic skin foci. death from shock
Microscopy/diagnosis of of RMSF?
endothelial cells causing arteritis and thrombosis causing necrosis. IMMUNOFLOURESCENCE
B. quintana
Trench fever....vector is body lice....homeless alcoholics!.....5 -day Quintana fever!....high fever headache, back pain, shin pain, and a FLEETING RASH
Cat Scratch Disease
B. henselae..inoculation lymphoreticulosis or subacute regional lymphadenitis. (intracellular gram negative bacteria).....lymphadenopathy from arms, neck, jaw, groin, ear.Vesicle or ERYTHEMATOUS papule at site of infection
Microscopy of CSD
LN with histiocytic granulomas, central necrosis/neutrophilic infiltrations....symptoms: malaise, decreased apetite, aches. Granulmoatous conjunctivits with swelling of LN near ear
CSD homeless
meningoencephalitis, encephalopathy, seizures, endocarditis
CSD immunocompromised
bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis
What is Scrub typhus?
Orientia tsutsugamushi....mite born dz. vector: tombiculid mite (chigger)......BLACK ESCHAR!
Wbat is Mycoplasma?
aka Eaton Agent. pleomorphic bacteria that lack cell wall (PPLO pneumonia and pleuritis).....parasitize MEMBRANE CELLS binding to epithelial lining of GI/RESP tract
Mycoplasma urethritis:
purulent non gonococcal urethritis causing PID....may produce chorioamniotis
Mycoplasma pneumonia
aerosol/droplet.....most in close quaretes (dorms, boarding school).....disrupt cilia and damage resp epithelium......they produce COLD AGGLUTININS AND COMPLEMENT FIXING ANTIBODIES......may cause false-positive serologic tests for syphilis
Microscopy of Mycoplasma pneumonia
interstitial pneumonia, alveolar air spaces empty, thick alveolar walls (intra-septal inflammation with mononuclear infiltrate).
Clinical Mycoplasma pneumo
walking pneumonia....low mortality. sore throat and unproductive cough...COMPLICATIONS THOOOOO.....myocarditis, miringitis, SJS (Steven Johnson Syndrome- periorificial ecto dermitis formed by ulcerated papule)