How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

144 terms

Chapter 14 (Endocrine System)

Book: Quick & Easy Medical Terminology (6th edition) Chapter 14: Endocrine System Author: Leonard Publisher: Saunders
STUDY
PLAY
endo-
inside
-crine
secrete
dys-
"bad", impaired
coordinates with the nervous system to regulate body activities
endocrine system
hyposecretion
dysfunctional hormone production involving a deficiency
hypersecretion
dysfuntional hormone production involving an excess
"hormonal system"
endocrine system
function of the endocrine system
coordinates iwth the nervous sytem to regulate body activities
hyposecretion
insufficient secretion
hypersecretion
excessove secretion
hypophysis
pituitary
hypo-
beneath (or below normal)
para-
near or beside (also abnormal)
pancreas
islets of Langerhans
hormones
chemical substances that are discharged into the bloodstream and used in other parts of the body
ductless glands; hormones secreted into bloodstream
endocrine glands
glands with ducts; open onto a body surface (e.g. sweat glands)
exocrine glands
exocrine glands are part of the endocrine system (true or false)
false
target organ
the organ or structure toward which the effects of a hormone are primarily directed
two ways endocrine glands release hormones
1) hormones are released in response to the nervous system
2) pituitary produces hormones that act on endocrine glands, which then produce hormones
nicknamed the "master gland"
pituitary gland
gonadotropic hormones
also called gonadtropins; produced by the pituitary gland and act on the gonads
gonads
ovaries or testicles
attached by a stalk at the base of the brain
hypophysis (or pituitary gland)
located within the pancreas
isletes of Langerhands
shaped like a pinecone and is attached to the posterior part of the brain
pineal gland
believed to secrete hormone melatonin; precise function not yet established
pineal gland
loacated at the front of the neck, consists of bilateral lobes that are connected by a narrow strip of tissue
thyroid gland
located near the thyroid, actuallly embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid
parathyroid glands
elongated structure that has digestive functions as well as endocrine functions
pancreas
pancreatic cells
islets of Langerhans
lies above each of the two kidneys
adrenal gland
endocrine glands as well as organs that produce ova or sperm
ovaries and testes
glands
structures that compose the endocrine system (endocrine glands, to be specific)
hormones
chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands
list the endocrine glands
pancreas, pineal, pituitary (hypophysis), thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, ovaries, testes
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroids
pituitar/o
pituitary gland
hypophys/o
pituitary gland
ren/o
kidney
thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland
toxic/o
poison
-gen
beginning, origin
-physis
growth
-tropic
stimulate
-tropin
that which stimulates
-uria
urine, urination
adren/o
adrenal glands
andr/o
male or masculine
gigant/o
giant
gonad/o
gonad
insulin/o
insulin
iod/o
iodine
myx/o
mucus
adrenaline
also known as epinephrine
androgen
testosterone is a major androgen
antidiuretic hormone
ADH
estrogen
female sex hormones; includes estradiol and estrone
thyroxine
iodine-containing hormone
hormone of the testicles
androgen
hormones of the adrenals
adrenaline (epinephrine), cortisone
hormone of the pituitary
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
synthesizes antidiuretic hormone and other hormones; controls secretion by the pituitary
hypothalamus
hormone of the ovaries (primarily)
estrogen
hormone of the pituitary; stimulation of body growth, and maintenance of size once growth is obtained
growth hormone
hormone of the pancreas
insulin
hormone of the thyroid
thyroxine
potent stimulator of the "fight or flight" response, increasing blood pressure and cardiac output
epinephrine (also known as adrenaline)
epinephrine
adrenaline
development and maintenance of masculinizing characteristics
androgen
major androgen hormone
testosterone
suppression of urine formation
antidiuretic hormone
important in regulation of body metabolism
cortisone
during menstrual cycle, acts on female genitalia to produce suitable site for fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of the early embryo
estrogen
regulation of blood glucose by coordinating with other hormones
insulin
cell metabolism
thyroxine
insufficient secrection (hyposecretion) or improper use of this hormone leads to diabetes mellitus
insulin
hyper-
above
ex-
outward
ophthalm/o
eye
hyperthyroidism
abnormally increased activity of the thyroid
classic finding associated with hyperthyroidism
exophthalmos
exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeballs
goiter
enlarged thyroid gland
euthyroid
normal thyroid function
hypothyroidism
decreased activity of the thyroid
eu-
normal
physical indications of endocrine disorders
unusually tall or short stature, coarsening of facial features, edema, hair loss, excessive facial hair in women
edema
acculmulation of fluid int the interstitial tissues
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging
diabetes insipidus
disorder associated with a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or inability of the kidneys to resond to ADH
diabetes mellitus
DM
well-known type of diabetes that produces hyperglycemia and is associated with insufficient or improper use of insulin
diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
characterized by abrupt onset of symptoms and a dependence on insulin injections to sustain life
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
characterized by a gradual onset; dietary control, sometimes combined with oral hypoglycemic medications, may be effective in regulating the disorder
"Diabetics"
persons who have diabetes mellitus
polyuria
frequent urniation
polydipsia
increased thirst
two characteristics of both diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus
polyuria and polydipsia
type of diabetes not associated with insulin deficiency
diabetes insipidus
hyperglycemia
increased level of glucose in the blood
glycosuria
sugar in the urine
poly-
many
-dipsia
thirst
glyc/o
sugar
-emia
blood
disorder associated with deficiency of ADH
diabetes insipidus
acromegaly
disorder in which there is abnormal enlargement of the extremities of the skeleton (nose, jaws, fingers, and toes) caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone after maturity
acr/o
extremity
-megaly
enlarged
adenoma
tumor of a gland
-oma
tumor
cretinism
condition caused by cogenital deficiency of thyroid secretion and marked by arrested physical and mental development
-al, -ary, -ic
pertaining to
axill/o
axilla
faci/o
facial
pub/o
pubis
umbilic/o
umbilicus (navel)
dwarfism
disease caused by hyposecretion of gowth hormone during childhood; it causes a person to be much smaller than normal size
gigantism
condition in which a person reaches an abnormal stature; it results from hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood
hyperinsulinism
excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreas, which causes hypoglycemia
hyperparathyroidism
increased activity of the parathyroid glands
hypoglycemia
abnormally low blood sugar
hypoparathyroidism
decreased activity of the parathyroid glands
hypopituitarism
diminished activity of the pituitary gland
myxedema
condition resulting from hypofunction of the thyroid gland, characterized by a dry, waxy swelling of the skin
-edema
swelling
thyrotoxicosis
morbid condition caused by excessive thyroid secretion
-osis
condition
abnormal enlargement of the extremities
acromegaly
abnormally tall stature
gigantism
condition caused by congenital deficiency of thyroid secretion
cretinism
disorder associated with insufficient or improper use of insulin
diabetes mellitus
disorder caused by insufficient ADH or inability of kidneys to respond to ADH
diabetes insipidus
enlarged thyroid gland that results in swelling of the neck
goiter
outward protrusion of the eyeballs
exophthalmos
hypophysectomy
surgical removal or destruction of the pituitary gland
-ectomy
excision
adenectomy
removal of a gland
thyroidectomy
removal of the thyroid gland
aden/o
gland
aden/o vs. adren/o vs. andr/o
aden/o (gland) vs. adren/o (adrenal gland) vs. andr/o (male)
-tropic vs. -tropin
-tropic (stimulate) vs. -tropin (that which stimulates)