History Chapter 9 Study

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The two hemispheres were changed radically when?
Columbus's voyage
America got its name because mapmakers wrongly believed ________ saw parts of the new world before Columbus
Amerigo Vespucci
Why did Columbus call the natives in the new world "Indians"?
He thought that he was in India
Demographers estimate the total population of the Western Hemisphere in the 1400s to be?
70 million
What destination was Columbus trying to reach on his initial voyage?
Asia
The most accurate assessment of contemporary history of the peoples of the Americas is that they?
Crossed into America from Russia Siberia
Today, increasing numbers of archaeologists have concluded the migrants to the Americas arrived no earlier than?
9000 BCE
The earliest civilization in North America was identified by a spear point which gave the group what name?
Clovis
The chinampas of the Amerindians in Central Mexico was a(n)
agricultural technique
The main crop grown by Amerindians was called?
Maize
By what year did copper reach Mexico?
3000 BCE
What is a milpa?
a field used for farming
What agricultural product when chewed increased stamina and kept individuals warm?
Coca
By what year did earthworks, or mounds, begin to appear in North America?
2500 BCE
Around 900 BCE the center of early Olmec culture was likely destroyed by?
invaders from the north
What was the largest city in Norte Chico?
Caral
What are khipu?
knotted strings of cotton used for recording tax obligations and census records
The richest concentration of mound buildings found in the Americas are where?
in the Ohio and Mississippi valley
The name for the Maya comes from what?
Zamna, a Maya god
The entire Maya region had about how many inhabitants?
14 million
What document gives us a Maya view of creation, good and evil, and the purpose of life?
The Popul Vuh
The largest Mayan religious ceremonial center was?
Tikal
Who established the city of Tula?
Topiltzin
An important mound building people who existed in present-day Ohio were the?
Hopwell
The leader of the Mississipian people had religious responsibilities and managed what?
Long distance trade
What led to the decline of the Hohokam and Anasazi?
erosion of soil and drought
The Mississipian mound builders were strongly influenced by?
Mesoamerica
What group established itself near the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in Illinois?
Cahokia
The Cahokia mounds represent the culture of the?
Hopewell people
The early Mexica or Aztec people settled on the shores and island of what body of water?
Lake Texcoco
The Aztec success in conquering Mexico can be attributed primarily to their?
association of war to part of their faith
According to the Aztecs, what did the sun need to keep moving across the sky?
Human blood/hearts
To gather sacrificial victims, The Aztecs sometimes went on campaigns called?
Flower Wars
The name Huitzilpochtili translates as?
Blue Humming Bird of the South
What was the feathered serpent god?
Quetzalcoatl
What was the capital city of the Aztecs?
Tenochtitlan
In the Aztec society, the head of the family was both a ________ and _______
warrior and provider
In Aztec society, social status and mobility depended on?
Military performance
The Aztec's first king came from what group?
The Toltecs
The techutli were?
provincial governors
In his first campaign, if a boy captured a prisoner he would become a _____, or Warrior
iyac
Scholars today believe that Aztec emperors were ________ by royal family
Elected
In Aztec society, the Maceualtin were considered
military service and honor
Andean culture depended primarily on?
potatoes
What group/s preceded the Inca in their rule in ancient Peru?
Chavin and Moche
What name was given to the Inca language?
Quechua
Inca rulers sought to prevent rebellion by?
deporting conquered peoples to new areas
what aided in the growth of communication in the Inca empire?
roads
The Inca king Atauhualpa encountered the initial Spaniards entering the kingdom led by whom?
Pizzaro
The _____, or clan served as the fundamental social unit of Inca society
ayllu
The mita in the empire was?
the system of conscripting labor from villages
During the marriage ceremony, what did the bride and groom exchange?
A pair of sandals
The Spaniards referred to the Inca nobility as?
Big Ears
The Curaces were the _______ who conducted relations with outsiders
headmen
In Inca society the state required everyone to?
marry
The word for Inca nobility was?
Oregones
How did the Aztecs get to the Americas?
They crossed Bering strait during Ice Age
What led the Aztecs to settle in Central America?
availability of water in the Valley of Mexico
In what way were the Aztecs more advanced than their Eruropean counterpart?
The number zero
What was the main material that the aztecs tools were made from?
Stone
When did the Aztecs actually reach the valley of Central America?
1250 BCE
On what lake did the Aztecs settle upon?
Lake Texcoco
How were the aztecs supposed to know where they were supposed to build their capital city?
Eagle sitting on a cactus eating a serpent
What was the capital city of the Aztecs?
Tenochtitlan
Who were the two temples and the pyramid honoring in Tenochtitlan?
Sun, war, and rain gods
How large was the Aztec empire?
100,000 square miles
How many people did the Aztecs have under their control?
15 Million
In 1494, How many hearts were cut out in only four days?
20 thousand
Who was he greatest king of the Aztecs?
Montezuma
Whose return was Montezuma afraid of?
Quetzalcoatl
Who was the Spanish leader that landed in Mexico?
Cortes
Who divided the new world between the Spanish and the Portuguese?
The Pope
Who served as a translator between the Aztecs and the Spanish?
Marina
Why was the Spanish weaponry and Horses so intimidating to the Aztecs?
The Spanish claimed their horses were sent by god
Why did Cortes' men attack the Aztecs during the festival?
To prevent human sacrifice
Who killed Montezuma?
Cortes
Who did Cortes kill in order to escape the Aztecs?
An Aztec chieftan
What killed most of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan?
A plague- small pox
How many troops did Cortes bring with him in his second round against the Aztecs?
100,000
What did the Aztec empire become known as after the conquest?
New Spain
What city was built on top of Tenochtitlan?
Mexico City
Where was the Maya civilization located?
Tekan
What type of writing system did the Maya use?
Hieroglyphics
Between what dates did the Maya civilization flourish?
250-900CE
How did missionaries destroy Mayan history?
They burnt Mayan religious texts, scientific documents, and literature
How many books were salvaged from Maya civilization?
four
With what subject did the Maya associate their mathematics?
a complex system of astronomy
What country would eventually decipher the Mayan glyphs?
Russia
What did the Maya kings use as repayment to the gods?
Blood
What happened to the losers of the early Maya games?
They were sacrificed to the Gods
What do modern shamans use to make sacrifices to the gods?
chicken blood
Why did the Mayan civilization come to an end?
The people lost faith in their kings