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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
History Unit 7 Test
Terms in this set (61)
dose revolutionary peeps stormed dis babay to get gunpowder and da weaponss to protect demselves from da scary soldiers dat da king put in Parí to keep da tings "unda controlll"
The name given to the system of rule in France before the French Revolution in 1789. Class based on privilages, not wealth, arbitrary ruler, majority of tax burden on third estate.
Became king of France 1774, at 19. Family had ruled France since 1589. Absolute monarchy. Louis believed he had divine right. dey accused him of despotism
originallyyy da peeps of France <3's him but den dey realized dat he was not a good ruler and he was going AGAINST dem (counta revolutionary) so dey exwcuted him
an old english word meaning 1/10, but in reality was a 8-15% tax on the harvest that peasants had to pay to the church.
a public position, ex. a judge. Many Bourgeoisie bought these. By paying an annual tax, holders of these offices could pass them off to their children.
The wife of Louis XVI . Daughter of empress of Austria, unpopular in later years.
France had 13, served as the highest courts of law in the land, but couldn't overrule the king.
A member of the third estate, who proposed that they call themselves the National Assembly because thhe other states were refusing to meet with them. **national assembly WHOLE third estate?
The renamed third estate, which would act on their own if the other two estates did not join them. However, the Clergy agreed to join.
Tennis Court Oath
The king ordered a meeting of all three estates in the hall where the 3rd estate usually meets. He had the hall locked to prepare, but didn't tell the 3rd estate, who became angry because they thought the king wanted to dissolve the Assembly. Moved to a tennis court where they took an oath not to disband until a new constitution was written.
National Constituent Assembly
National Assembly was renamed this after nobles and clergy began attending sessions, and it became an integrated body of all three Estates
The insurrection that had town thru Paris swept through 2/3s of france in July of 1789. Characterized by hunger, desperation, and extreme violence.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The preface to a new constitution, promised liberty and equality to citizens and emphasized the need for constitutional protection of these rights, said that sovereignty rested in the people of the nation, not just king.
A pro-revolutionary reform group, coalition of like-minded individuals. Had over 900 affiliated clubs around France
Women's march to Versailles
October 5, 1789, in reaction to the suspensive veto that the assembly agreed to let the king have, invaded the palace and demanded that the king return to Paris with them
People against the revolution and changes in the government, who wanted to restore full authority of the French king. many members of the nobility and ⅔ of army's officers
Replaced the National Constituent Assembly, when began to meet, faced the immediate threat of war.
Declaration of Pillnitz
Aug 1791, the King of Prussia and Emp Leopold of Austria issued a declaration that they would intervene in France if they were joined by other European powers. Provoked great anxiety in France.
People who fled france,many members of the nobility and ⅔ of army's officers. Assembly declared that émigres who did not return would be punished with death.
An offshoot of the Jacobins known as the Girondins, began to call for war to protect the revolution from foreign intervention
Leader of a faction in the Jacobins known as "The Mountain" Believed that war threatened the revolution and France, believed that France's disorganized army would be defeated in a war.
Working class people who took to the streets of Paris to protest the lack of political and economic progress, supported revolution.
Storming of the Tuileries
Aug 1792, Sans culottes and members of the national gaurd attacked the king's residence in Paris and hacked his guards to death.
The assembly voted to suspend the monarch and disband themselves. Called for new elections to write a new constitution, this assembly called the convention. All french men eligable to elect its members.
Jean Paul Marat
A well known radical journalist who wrote that the rest of france should follow the example of Paris and kill political prisoners.
Committee for Public Safety
Created by the convention to help guide the government in the face of financial trouble and skyrocketing food prices, used terror and fear to subdue opponents. Maximilien Robespierre was spokesman
A supporter of the Girondists who assassinated Marat in July 1793. Fueled Fear among the members of CFPS that she was part of a massive plot against them
Law of the Maxixmum
Maximum prices for food, set by the Committee.
Law of Suspects
A campaign to eliminate those perceived to be "treasonous." Limited Judicial protections for those who committed a crime, and expanded the definition of what a political crime was.
campaign against the church taken even further. Revolutionaries thought that resistance to their agenda came from the catholic church, organized by gov officials acting on their own. Became a part of the Terror. Word saint was removed from street signs, churches vandalized or closed, priests forbidden to wear religious clothing, etc.
"The Cult of Supreme Being"
A civic religion created by Robespierre in 1794 to promote civic virtues like justice, heroism, and modesty. Hoped this would unify france and not divide society like catholicism did, but in fact made people think he was going crazy and was thought of as "the last straw"
Designed to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of just a few that made the Terror Possible. Ended universal suffrage for men- required they paid taxes or had served in the army. Also established a bicameral legislature that selected the directory. Proposed that 2/3s of the assembly be composed of members of the convention
An executive body called the directory, which had 5 directors, part of the new constitution.
What were the three main social classes in France?
3 Characteristics of the lives of peasants
1)expected to obey their "betters" and pay dues and taxes to local nobility, church, and king. 2)Hardship, hunger, and suffering 3) vast majority worked in agriculture.
Why did peasants move to cities? What was life like in cities?
Many peasants moved to the city because living in the countryside was a great challenge--the agricultural life did not make a lot of money, and nutrition was poor. Life in the city included a lot of poverty and hunger, too. Challenge of providing for family was high. Some also worked as servants. Enjoyed food, clothing, and shelter, but were often poorly treated and forbidden to marry. Many riots, too.
Why did women often participate in riots?
Women often participated in or led these riots because the riots were usually over high prices and shortages of bread, and their role was preparing and providing food. Began to have a larger role in public life.
Why and how did the bourgeoise invest in education? What was the consequence?
The Bourgeoisie population tripled because of a growing economy, and they began to have more wealth and influence. Among other things, they invested in education because they saw it as a way of helping future generations prosper. The number of schools, universities, newspapers, libraries, theaters, and clubs increased. This contributed to the introduction and circulation of new ideas in france.
What were the privileges of the nobility?*
he priviliges of the nobility:
Exempt from the numerous taxes the Bourgeoisie and peasants had to pay. LIKE WHAT?
If accused of a crime they were entitied to be tried in a special court
could not be drafted
Could collect fees and taxes from people who lived on the land
How did France's political structure complicate the task of governing?
France's political structure complicated the task of governing because the king inherited the throne with with a political structure and organization to France that had developed over centuries. It was divided internally--provinces with governers, and generalites, who assumed most of the responsibility for governing. Variations in languages spoken and taxation systems throughout the kingdom.
What were the functions of the Catholic Church in French society?
:provided charity to the poor, ran hospitals and orphanages, vital services people otherwise wouldn't be able to afford. Provided hope. Also had an administrative role: kept birth and death records, could sensor publications it didn't approve of. Taxed land. Had a real civic role
What were the estates in the Estates General? What was the function of that body?
The estates general was meant to be a representative body composed of people from all the estates. Kings convened the Estates General to get support for new taxes. By the time charles XVI, the estate general hadn't convened since 1614.
Describe the Estates General: Who were the members? How many people did they represent?*
What was the significance of debate over voting procedure at the Estates General
The significance of debate over voting procedure at the estates general was that it resulted in a greater role for the 3rd estate, doubling the number of representatives.
What did the lists of grievances call for?
The list of grievances did NOT call for a revolution, they called for fairness in taxation, a limit to the privileges of the nobility, and an end of tithes to the church, some even expressed devotion for the king.
What led to riots and violence in the spring of 1789?
As Estates General prepared to meet, Many people in France were frustrated: bread shortages--> price to double. Distrust in nobility. The actual riots broke out after a factory owner said that lower bread prices would make it possible for lower wages.
Why did the crowds attack the Bastille on July 14, 1789?
The crowds attacked Bastille because they were searching for weapons, after finding out the king fired 4 popular ministers. Bastille was not only a prison, but also Paris's largest arsenal of gunpowder.
Describe the contrasting moods in France in the weeks after the fall of Bastille
After the fall of Bastille, the king agreed to work with the assembly and reappoint Necker. The mood became patriotic and hopeful. The National Assembly became the National Constituent Assembly. "Long live the king!"
What changes did the National Constituent Assembly make to the powers of the nobility?
The NCA ended many of the privileges of the nobility. Ended centuries old social hierarchy . Ended dues and taxes peasants had to make to nobility. No more hunting rights and private tolls.
No more tithes and the purchase of public offices. Instead based on ability.
What were the divisions in the National Constituent Assembly?
Three factions. First was majority, moderates. Believed that France would become a constitutional monarchy, war over. Second group was smaller and more conservative, nobility and clergy who thought the revolution had gone too far. Third group was a small minority, patriot deputies who wanted more rights for all. Legal equality for protestants
What options did the National Constituent Assembly have in August 1789?
1. Conserve power of king--only way to conserve France's greatness
2 Liberate France from old regime--rationality, reason, progress
3. Create a constitutional monarchy --new, just, and fair society
What was an "active citizen"?
Active citizens were men over the age of 25 who paid a certain amount of taxes. Only ones allowed to vote.
How did the NCA reform the Catholic Church? What was the consequence?
Decided that the lands and properties owned by the Catholic Church belonged to the nation. Sold to pay gov't debts. Enacted Civil constitution of the Clergy: priests and bishops must be elected, reduced authority of pope. Consequence: a serious split in the french public and undermined support for the Revolution, particularly in rural areas. alienates many catholics, especially peasants and divides Clergy into 2 extremes: Those who swear loyalty to the constitution, and those who do not (refractory priests)
When and why did Saint Domingue revolt?
The enslaved people of Saint Domingue revolted on Aug 22, 1791, inspired by events in france and ideas of equality and liberty. Lasted until Jan 1, 1804, when new republic of Haiti claimed independence from France
How did the "Flight to Varennes change the French people's attitude towards the king?
The "Flight to Varennes" changed French people's attitude towards the king because many people in the assembly were shocked. People had no more affection for him. Added into the constitution that if the king left country, retracted his oath, or led a rebellion, he would be removed from power.
What were the consequences of the war declared on April 20,1792?*
French armies badly beaten in first battles, fear and anger spread, grain shortages and hunger persisted, internal distrust
What were the reasons for the "September Massacres"?
As the Prussian army invaded Paris, city gov ordered drastic measures. Removed 1000 prisoners from the Paris Jails and executed them. Believed this would elliminate enemies of the revolution and prevent uprising
What was the reaction to the execution of Louis XVI?
The execution of Louis XVI shocked many people in France and raised the stakes for those who had voted for his execution. Shocked leaders of other European states as well. Spain, Dutch Republic, and Great Britan declared war on France. Convention decided to draft 300,000 new troops (unpopular). Created further divisions within France--developed into a civil war
Why did the Convention establish Committee for Public Safety?
The convention established committee for Public safety to help guide the government in the face of financial trouble and skyrocketing food prices, used terror and fear to subdue opponents.
What was the purpose of the Terror? What was it?
The terror was a period in June and July of 1794 in which radical measures--including violence and executions--were taken against enemies of the revolution, for even small felonies. Included the Law of Suspects. More than 1500 would guillotined in Paris during this period.
What changes did the Convention make to French society?
The convention made dramatic changes in French society. INtroduced metric system, created laws for equal inheritances within families, including girls.
Reduced power of the Catholic Church: abandoned christian calendar, removed responsibility for education from Church, required births deaths and marriages to be registered at city hall, not with church, legalized divorce
Wanted to make life easier for poor, but didn't do as good a job as the church
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