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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
The French Revolution
Terms in this set (62)
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed
a family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church
position bought from crown in which holders kept them and passed them on by paying an annual tax
Queen of France who was unpopular; her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy
local regional governing bodies to which Louis XIV gave considerable power
Took place in 1775; was series of protests over the price of bread
Seven Years' War
struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land
French sugar colony that had the only slave revolt that resulted in the abolition of slavery (modern-day Haiti)
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789
Tennis Court Oath
Vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a constitution was written
National Constituent Assembly
National Assembly was renamed to this when First and Second Estates joined;wished to establish a constitutional monarchy
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).
the most radical French middle class political club which wanted to remove the king and establish a republic
a man paying annual taxes equal to three days of local labor wages, and only they could vote. They chose electors, who then in turn voted for the members of the legislature.
Women's March to Versailles
Parisian women marched to Versailles to talk to King Louis XVI about bread prices on October 5, 1789
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Eliminates special privileges of church officials, sells off land, makes the Church a body of elected instead of appointed officials
groups of people who apposed the French revolution and tried to actively change its course. Supported by nobles and 2/3 of the army
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791
Declaration of Pillnitz
afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened
nobles and others who left France during peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to the old system
a moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The Girondin Party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France's borders
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue
"without breeches"; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages
storming of the Tuilieries
8/10/1792, crowd of 20,000 people determined to de-throne Louis and make him the last monarch France would ever have. The Swiss Guards, who were defending the king, tried to stop them. The mob followed the retreating Swiss Guards, caught up with them, and massacred 600 of their number using whatever weapons they had.
comprised the constitutional and legislative assembly of France and sat from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. It held executive power in France during the first years of the French First Republic.
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
Committee for Public Safety
Led by Maximilien Robespierre, its chief task was to protect the revolution from its enemies. Under Robespierre's rule, the committee often tried enemies in the morning and killed them in the afternoon.
Killed Marat in bath tub because she thought that killing him would stop the violence.
Law of the Maximum
the fixing prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule
Law of Suspects
Anyone who harms or intends to harm the revolution by thought, word or deed is prosecuted
Churches were replaced by temples of reasons; the revolution became the new religion; a new calendar was created from the start of the republic instead of the birth of Christ; escalated counter revolution
The Cult of the Supreme Being
a "civic religion" created by Robespierre to promote civic virtues as a unifying replacement for Christianity
a new plan of government. The 3rd since 1791. Placed power in the upper class and made two branches of five men. The Executive Body was known as the Directory.
A group of 5 men who were given control of France following the Reign of Terror
What were the characteristics of the lives of peasants in the Old Regime?
hardship, hunger, suffering, had to obey nobles and bourgeoisie, had different dialects and different cultures because of divisions, low wages, had to pay lots of taxes, 20% died before age 1; 50% before 15
Why did women participate in riots?
had large role in preparing and providing food so they would riot in shortages and high prices of food
What were the privileges of the nobility in the Old Regime?
entitled to special court, couldn't be drafted into army, own one-third of land, entitled to collect fees and taxes on anyone, 25% of revenues of church went to noble clergymen, senior advisors to king were usually nobles
How did France's political structure and cultural variety complicate task of governing?
tangling web of jurisdictions (39 provinces but 36 different généralitiés), généralitiés assumed responsibility for administration and government of regions including tax collection, king claimed absolute authority, variations of everything (dialects and culture) throughout regions
What were the functions of the Catholic Church in French society?
responsible for education system, provided aid and charity to the poor, ran majority of hospitals and orphanages
What were the estates in the Estates General? What was the function of that body? How many people were in each Estate?
1st Estate: church (clergy)=> 150,000 people
2nd Estate: nobility=> 150,000 people
3rd Estate: everyone else=> 25,700,000 people
provided counsel only in times of crisis
How did Enlightenment challenge Old Regime?
no more hierarchy (or having different rankings of status or authority), people not being born smart
What were the causes of France's financial crises? (inc. American Revolution)
participating in the Seven Years' War and American Revolution (had sizable army and navy to run), Marie Antoinette's lavish spending deepened debt
Were any of Louis XVI's reforms successful? Why or why not?
his want to increase tolerance toward non-Catholics was successful only after his death
How many votes did each estate get in the Estates General? What changes were proposed?
all got one vote; 3rd Estate wanted a more fair ratio of votes for the amount of people they represented
What did the lists of grievances call for?
taxation fairness, limit on nobility privileges, and of tithes to the Church and end of devotion to the king
What were the ideals of the French Revolution?
liberty, equality, fraternity
What led to riots and violence in the spring of 1789?
people frustrated, shortages during winter caused bread prices to double, distrust in nobility (assumption that nobles were trying to enrich themselves while poor starved), rumor that lower bread prices could possibly lower wages, peasants rioted against high grain prices, seized Church property and refused to pay tithes
Why did crowds attack the Bastille on July 14, 1789?
in search of weapons over fear caused by foreign soldiers called in by king, Paris's largest gunpowder arsenal
What changes did the National Constituent Assembly make to the powers of the nobility?
ended system of dues and taxes to nobility from peasants, hunting rights and private tolls abolished, ending tithes and purchase of public offices
How did the National Constituent Assembly reform the Catholic Church? What was the consequence?
lands and properties owned by Church belonged to nation and sold them to pay off debts, enacted Civil Constitution of the Clergy (priests and bishops elected by people), reduced authority pope had in governing Church in France
When pope rejected this, Assembly insisted that priests take oath of loyalty to new gov't but half of clergy refused
When and why did Saint-Domingue revolt?
August 22, 1791 because the enslaved people of the sugar colony of France revolted inspired by the events happening in France based on ideas of liberty and equality
How did the "Flight to Varennes" change the French people's attitude towards the king?
radicals in Jacobin Club began to call for republic (representative gov't without king), assembly finished constitution which said that if the king left the country, retracted his oath to the constitution or led a rebellion against France then he would be removed from power
What were the consequences of the war declared on April 20, 1792?
French badly beaten in first battles, suspicions of treachery and c-r plots within army, suggestions of French generals for peace were seen by revolutionaries as treasonous and trying to restore power to Louis XVI, fear and anger spread, grain shortages and hunger continued
What were the reasons for the "September Massacres"?
advance of Prussian army into France fueled panic, sans culottes believed doing so would eliminate enemies of revolution and prevent uprising
What was the reaction to the execution of Louis XVI?
shocked other European leaders, Spain, Great Britain and the Dutch Republic declared war on France, Convention drafted 300,000 new troops (an unpopular decision that sparked resistance in western and southern France), created more divisions (in the west there were the Vendeé who were and armed group called Catholic and Royal Army clashed with the National Guard and rebelled against revolutionary governmental authorities AKA a civil war)
Why did the Convention establish the Committee for Public Safety?
to help guide the government and protect it against foreign attacks and internal rebellion
What was the purpose of the Terror? When was it?
purpose was for the revolutionary governments to consolidate power by stopping internal revolts, defeating the foreign powers and building an army to serve the above purposes
Lasted from 1793-1794
What changes did the Convention make to French Society?
introduced metric system, created laws for equal inheritances within families (including girls), reduced power of the Catholic Church (abandoned christian calendar, removed responsibility for education from Church, required births deaths and marriages to be registered at city hall, not with church, legalized divorce), wanted to make life easier for poor, but didn't do as well as the church
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