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Series of economic changes that took place starting in the early 1800's and lasting to mid-1800's

- Great improvements in transportation, steamboat, building of canals, the railroad → much more efficient and rapid transportation of goods and ideas throughout the country. Slaveholders and traders saw the advantage of this and used these improvements to strengthen the slave market economy.

Refers to a shift in economic activity where more and more farmers and city men were producing goods for the market rather than for their own subsistence. Many went from rural self-sustaining → industrial, city, manufacturing all for market to earn a profit/wage.

- Before the 1800's much of the population lived in rural areas. Majority of these small rural farmers and their families grew and created goods for their own families' support, but by around 1840, a large and ever-increasing margin of people were producing goods for the marketplace. → as this shift occurred, the lives of many changed in social political and other ways as well.

Created a violent departure of the previous social norms and it contributed to the creation of domestic ideology

Just about everyone in the U.S. was affected by this rise of market relations. Although majority of the North saw the market revolution as a positive, many Southerners' detested the changes incited by the revolution. Some men experienced greater independence due to the market; some of them lost their economic independence and were forced to find work in factories, under the dictation of a superior.

- George Fitzhugh, a southern slaveholder exemplifies the Southern distaste for the growing wage-based economy in the North. In his article Cannibals All!, he maintains that being a wage worker in the capitalist system created by the market revolution was to be involved in "wage slavery", which is "is little better than moral cannibalism" (Fitzhugh, 1).

The later Missouri Compromise revealed how the MR had exacerbated the sectional difference over slavery and deepened the divide between the N and S.
In the 80 years between the American Revolution and the Civil War, the North and South developed along distinct and opposing lines economically, politically, and culturally. The South took a very different economic course than the North. After the Revolutionary War, tobacco income plummeted, cotton brought the stagnant southern economy back to life. While the North became an industrial and manufacturing powerhouse deeply affected by social reform movements like abolitionism and women's rights, the South became a cotton kingdom, founded on slavery, whose inhabitants generally abstained from or opposed such reformist tendencies.

- Mainly occurred along the black belt which had the best soil for growing cotton

- Cotton production controlled life in the South

- The gin made mass cotton production in the South feasible and helped to institutionalize slavery in the region. The Louisiana Purchase and the annexation of Texas as a slave state helped to expand the Cotton Kingdom. Politically, cotton became the foundation of southern control of the Democratic Party.

- The widespread use of the cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, made cotton plantations efficient and profitable. The demand for cotton also grew because of the developing textile industries in the North and in Britain. Cotton plantations spread across the South, and by 1850, the southern U.S. grew more than 80 percent of the world's cotton.

The South became a veritable "Cotton Kingdom," remaining rural and agrarian while the North became industrialized. Rich plantation owners saw little reason to spend their capital on risky industrial projects when cash crops brought in a large, steady income.

The cotton kingdom also brought more people to the South. Getting rich by growing raising a cotton crop where slaves did all the hard labor was attractive to many farmers. Causing great growth in the areas new slave owning states such as Texas quickly grew. Politicians quickly saw that if the south got more states they would dominate the north in the senate. When this happened, they planned to reject any law made by the north to abolish slavery, and also ban any bill that may benefit the north.

As the U.S. cotton industry developed, other countries became more dependent on cotton produced in the American South. The power of cotton allowed the Confederacy to employ cotton diplomacy as its foundation for foreign relations during the Civil War; Southerners attempted to use cotton to pressure countries such as England and France into the war on behalf of the Confederacy. Southern leaders were convinced that the key to their success lay in gaining international recognition and help from European powers in breaking the blockade that the Union had thrown up around coastal areas and ports and that was increasingly effective as the war went on.
Toward the end of his first term in office, Jackson was forced to confront the state of South Carolina on the issue of the protective tariff. Business and farming interests in the state had hoped that Jackson would use his presidential power to modify tariff laws they had long opposed. In their view, all the benefits of protection were going to Northern manufacturers, and while the country as a whole grew richer, South Carolina grew poorer, with its planters bearing the burden of higher prices.

The protective tariff passed by Congress and signed into law by Jackson in 1832 was milder than that of 1828, but it further embittered many in the state. The tariff, southerners insisted, was essentially a tax on their region to assist northern manufacturers. South Carolina expressed the loudest outcry against the tariff. At a public meeting in Charleston, protesters declared that a tariff was designed to benefit "one class of citizens [manufacturers] at the expense of every other class." Some South Carolinians called for revolutionary defiance of the national government.

In response, a number of South Carolina citizens endorsed the states' rights principle of "nullification," which was enunciated by John C. Calhoun, Jackson's vice president until 1832. Calhoun offered a theoretical framework, drawing from the Constitution, for Southern discontent by demonstrating that since they freely joined the Union and were not forced to join, that their neither forced to follow legislation that damages their state. South Carolina dealt with the tariff by declaring both the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 null and void within state borders.

Ultimately, South Carolinians abandon nullification

- Calhouns nullification logic would later become the legal precedent for secession
When the Constitutional Convention debated the issue of how to count population for the purposes of representation, the Southern delegates wanted nonvoting slaves to be counted as full persons. That way, the Southern states would have had a greater representation in the House of Representatives. In contrast, some Northern delegates resisted counting slaves at all. Why, asked Elbridge Gerry, "should the blacks, who were property in the South, be in the rule of representation more than the cattle & horses of the North?"

Slaves were to be counted as less than whites for representation, which was not in the interests of the South. Slaves were, however, also to be counted as less than whites for measuring a state's apportioned direct-tax liability, and that was a benefit to the South

Even though slaves were property under the laws of the Southern states, the Constitution itself acknowledged that they were persons. In addition, by tying both representation and direct taxation to apportionment, the Framers removed any sectional benefit, and thus any proslavery taint, from the special counting rule.

3/5th's of the ENTIRE slave population was to be counted or included in the representation of the population of a state

The 3/5th Compromise greatly augmented southern political power.

- In Congress, where each state had an equal vote, there were only five states in which slavery was a major institution.

- - Thus the southern states had about 38 percent of the seats in the Continental Congress.

- - Because of the 1787 Three-Fifths Compromise, the southern states had nearly 45 percent of the seats in the first U.S. Congress, which took office in 1790.

- - - The Senate, Supreme Court Judges, the House of Representatives all were usually Southern dominated and therefore tended to push Southern agenda in the government

- - - - This is viewed as unfair to the North and is arguably the beginning of the Slave Power Conspiracy the North maintained
Southern response to the market revolution, a narrative of justification for slavery

- It is out of the "virtue" of white men that they protect slaves from the brutal market world and provide housing for them

- - When men portrayed as fatherly figure that had a duty as civilized white men to uplift and improve the life of slavery

- - - Whites were benevolent fathers to slaves and therefore slavery was a necessary good

- Use paternalistic narrative as a tool to attack capitalism

- - Ex. George Fitzhugh in "Cannibals All!" is a perfect example of the paternalistic narrative used in the South

- - - Uses paternalism as a positive defense of slavery and an attack against wage labor and capitalism

- - - "The master allows the slave to retain a larger share of the results of his own labor" than do those in free labor. And, "the master provides provides food, reimant, hose, fuel and everything else necessary to the physical well-being of slaves and their families"

- Johnson's book Soul by Soul demonstrates how buyers and sellers of slaves in the New Orleans slave market could easily mix the language and values associated with paternalism and commercialism.

- - His book reveals how slave owners and traders, etc. liked to emphasize the paternalistic aspects of slavery—the natural bonds linking master and servant and the cradle-to-grave care that distinguished the lot of the Southern slave owners from that of the Northern 'wage slave' and market brutality.

- Paternalism combatted commodification, or at least it created a more favorable view of slavery

- The slave market was the underlying reason whites' rhetoric began to conform to a paternalistic ideology that held that masters were watching over slaves, buying or selling slaves for reasons that would benefit slaves, who could not, or would not, care for themselves.

- The market culture of slavery was based in fantasy- as was paternalistic ideology
By the early 1850s settlers and entrepreneurs wanted to move into the area now known as Nebraska. However, until the area was organized as a territory, settlers would not move there because they could not legally hold a claim on the land. The southern states' representatives in Congress were in no hurry to permit a Nebraska territory because the land lay north of the 36°30' parallel — where slavery had been outlawed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Just when things between the north and south were in an uneasy balance, the Act fueled an increase of the sectional divide.

- The person behind the Kansas-Nebraska Act was Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois → wanted to build transatlantic railroad

Arguably the final legal act that pushed the country to civil war through the creation of a new political party (origins of the new Republican party)

The Act mandated "popular sovereignty" in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska-allowing settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed within a new state's borders

Possibility of Kansas being a slave state directly refuted Missouri Compromise 36-30 line → great for Southerners because it provides legal basis for disregarding Missouri Compromise

Passage of the bill irrevocably split the Whig Party, one of the two major political parties in the country at the time.

- Every northern Whig had opposed the bill

- Almost every southern Whig voted for it.

With issue of slavery involved, there was no way a common ground could be found.

- Most of the southern Whigs went to Democratic Party.

- Northern Whigs reorganized themselves with other non-slavery interests to become the Republican Party, the party of Abraham Lincoln.

- - This left the Democratic Party as the sole remaining institution that crossed sectional lines.

- - Animosity between the North and South was again on the rise.