32 terms

Biology 1308 Ch 3 Questions

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Organic compounds
always contain carbon
Many names for sugars end in the suffix
-ose.
A phospholipid is composed of
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids.
Which of the following would be correctly classified as a protein?
an enzyme
Which of the following statements about dehydration synthesis is false?
Animal digestive systems utilize this process to break down food
What is the general function of enzymes within a cell?
to speed up chemical reactions
Sucrose is formed
from two monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis.
Which of the following is an amino group?
-NH2
Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be
unsaturated.
DNA differs from RNA because DNA
contains thymine in place of uracil.
In what part of the world did the mutation for lactose tolerance first appear?
northern Europe
DNA carries the instructions for building _____, and these instructions are found in informational units called _____.
polypeptides ... genes
Myosin is a contractile protein found in muscles that is composed of three pairs of subunits, two heavy chains, and two pairs of two different types of light chains, for a total of six subunits. Myosin contains what level(s) of protein structure?
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
How many different kinds of amino acids are there in most proteins?
20
Proteins are an important class of molecules because of the functions they perform. Proteins can _____.
act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication
You're the manager of a factory that produces enzyme-washed blue jeans (the enzymes lighten the color of the denim, giving a "faded" appearance). When the most recent batch of fabric came out of the enzyme wash, however, the color wasn't light enough to meet your standards. Your quality control laboratory wants to do some tests to determine why the wash enzymes didn't perform as expected.


If you could design a modified version of the enzyme to ensure that it would function optimally in the harsh conditions of the washing vat (such as high temperature or high pH), which of the following could you do to achieve this goal?
Change the amino acid sequence slightly to ensure a more stable tertiary structure.
You're the manager of a factory that produces enzyme-washed blue jeans (the enzymes lighten the color of the denim, giving a "faded" appearance). When the most recent batch of fabric came out of the enzyme wash, however, the color wasn't light enough to meet your standards. Your quality control laboratory wants to do some tests to determine why the wash enzymes didn't perform as expected.


Based on your understanding of enzyme structure, which of the following would you recommend that they also investigate?
The temperature of the liquid in the washing vat
Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid by _____.
adding hydrogens
Which type of fat was found to contribute the most relative risk of developing heart disease?
trans fat
The reaction that joins two monomers to form a polymer is known as a _____ reaction. The molecule of water formed is due to the interaction between _____ and a hydrogen ion.
dehydration ... a hydroxyl group
Propanol and isopropanol are isomers. This means that they have
the same molecular formula but different chemical properties
A phospholipid is composed of
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids.
Organic compounds
always contain carbon.
Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.
Which of the following functional groups is capable of regulating gene expression?
-CH3
Choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence: Hydroxyl is to _____ as _____ is to amine.
alcohol ... amino
Which of the following molecules is a carbohydrate?
C60H100O50
A disaccharide forms when
two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis
Carbohydrates are mainly used in our bodies _____.
as fuel
Cellulose differs from starch in that
most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested
A diet high in animal products and hydrogenated vegetable margarine may increase the risk for atherosclerosis. This is because
most animal fats are saturated and many hydrogenated vegetable margarines contain high levels of trans fats.
Lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they _____.
are not truly polymers
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