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EIWS COMMON CORE (108 Networks)

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108.1 Define the following devices and their uses
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Terms in this set (12)
a. Host/Client: A host provides the service to the client who is in need of a certain service or function.
b. Application Server: Provides remote application services to clients who request it in a network environment.
c. Hub: A network hub or repeater hub is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment.
d. Switch: Is a hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN).
e. Router: a router is defined as a device that selects the best path for a data packet to be sent from one computer network to another.
f. WAP: A Wireless Access Point is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a network via Wi-Fi.
g. Proxy Server: A buffer between the internet and a user to improve security by making requests to other servers for the client, and by evaluating, filtering the requests, and caching information.
h. Firewall: A security device that all traffic coming into and leaving a network traverses, and according to rules, filters and allows only approved traffic.
i. VPN Concentrator: A Virtual Private Network concentrator is a network device that allows a user to remotely access the network in a secure tunnel.
j. Back-up: Copy of settings, or software that is created in case there is an issue with the current data, and the current data needs to be restored.
k. Repeater: A network device that allows for a network cable to be lengthened further than what the cable standard would normally allow, by refreshing the signal and resending it.
a. Access: Access routers, including are located at customer sites such as branch offices that do not need hierarchical routing of their own. Typically, they are optimized for low cost.
b. Distribution: Distribution routers direct traffic from multiple access routers at either the same site, or to collect data streams from multiple sites to a major enterprise location. Distribution routers are often responsible for enforcing quality control across a WAN.
c. Core: In enterprises, a core router may provide a "collapsed backbone" interconnecting the distribution tier routers from multiple buildings of a campus, or large enterprise locations. They tend to be optimized for high bandwidth.
a. Topology (Bus/Star/Ring/Mesh): the architecture of a network
Bus: Has the clients all in a single line with both ends terminated. Each client is daisy chained off of the clients to either side.
Star: topology where multiple clients are connected to a single device such as a hub or a switch. If a client goes down only communication to the client is lost.
Ring: Clients are connected in a loop like a bus that has the ends connected together.
Mesh: Connects all of the clients to every other client.
c. LAN: (Local Area Network) a network that is confined to a small geographical area, such as an office or building.
d. WAN: (Wide Area Network) a network that is connected in a very large geographical area, and includes LANs and MANs.
e. MAN: (Metropolitan Area Network) a network that spans over a larger area than a LAN, but does not exceed a geographical area the equivalent to a city.
f. GAN: (Generic Access Network) a wireless network that allows a mobile device to switch seamlessly to a different LAN in a large geographical area.
a. OSI Model [ref. b]: Is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. It was developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. In its most basic form, it divides network architecture into seven layers.
Layer 7 - Application
Layer 6 - Presentation
Layer 5 - Session Layer
Layer 4 - Transport Layer
Layer 3 - Network Layer
Layer 2 - Data Link Layer
Layer 1 - Physical Layer
b. TCP/IP Model [ref. b]:
Application Layer- Telnet, FTP, SMTP
Transport Layer- TCP, UDP
Internet Layer- IP
Network Access Layer- Ethernet, Token Ring
IPV4 utilizes 4 bytes to express an address; it has only 32 bits that can be used for its address. IPv4 addresses are mostly expressed in what is referred to as dot-decimal notation, for example: 192.168.15. 85
IPv6 addresses consist of eight groups of four hexadecimal numbers, where each field is separated by a colon. The real intent of IPv6 is to increase the efficiency of network management and routing.