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112 EIWS COMMON CORE (Intelligence)

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112.1 State the purpose of Naval Intelligence
Naval intelligence provides insights into this uncertain world, both in peace and in war. Properly employed, intelligence can give us an accurate estimate of the situation, forecast likely adversary courses of action, and allow us to apply selective but decisive combat power throughout the battlespace. The fog of war precludes us from having a complete picture of the battlespace, but naval intelligence can lessen the unknowns and reduce risk for friendly forces
112.2 Define the five steps of Intelligence cycle
1. Planning and direction: The orderly identification of needed information and the assignment of the gathering task(s)
2. Collection: The systematic procurement of intelligence information
3. Processing: The conversion of collected intelligence information into a form suitable for producing usable intelligence
4. Production: The integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of information from all available sources into tailored, usable intelligence
5. Dissemination: The timely distribution of intelligence in suitable form to agencies needing it.
112.3 Describe the three categories of Intelligence
Strategic Intelligence is required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels. At the strategic level, intelligence is oriented toward national objectives and supports the formulation of policies and determination of priorities. Strategic intelligence focuses first on discerning the capabilities and intentions of potential adversaries as well as considering the strategic intentions of allies and other potential multinational partners. Strategic intelligence plays a central role in identifying an adversary's centers of gravity.
Operational Intelligence is required for planning operations within regional theaters or areas of operations. It concentrates on intelligence collection, identification, location, and analysis to support the operational level of warfare, which includes identifying an adversary's operational critical vulnerabilities. Further, it assists the commander in deciding how best to employ forces while minimizing risk.
Tactical Intelligence is required for planning and conducting tactical operations at the component or unit level. It focuses on a potential adversary's capabilities, his immediate intentions, and the environment. It is oriented more toward combat than long-range planning. Far more than at any other level, tactical intelligence support is the primary focus of naval intelligence.
112.4 Define National, Theater, and Fleet Level Intelligence Organizations
National intelligence organizations are responsible for executive and strategic intelligence.
The Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
The Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD(I))
The Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Joint Staff Directorate for Intelligence, J-2
The Chiefs of the Military Services
Theater intelligence organizations handle operational intelligence to ensure security and execution of campaigns and major operations.
Joint intelligence centers
Theater commanders
Fleet intelligence organizations fulfill tactical intelligence requirements at the request of the COCOM.
Director of fleet intelligence
Fleet and unit commanders
Intelligence officers
112.5 Define PIR
Priority Intelligence Requirements are intelligence requirements, stated as a priority for intelligence support, that the commander and staff need to understand the adversary or the operational environment.
Typically a specific list of requirements put out by the CO, N2 or other senior official requiring immediate intelligence gathering support to provide the answers that complete the battlespace picture.
112.6 Define CCIR
Commander's Critical Information Requirements comprise information requirements identified by the commander as being critical in facilitating timely information management and the decision-making process that affect successful mission accomplishment. The two key subcomponents are critical friendly force information and priority intelligence requirements.
112.7 Explain Intelligence Oversight and state the publications that govern it
Intelligence oversight involves a balancing of two fundamental interests: obtaining the intelligence information required to protect national security and protecting individual rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the laws of the United States.
EO 12333: United States Intelligence Activities
DOD 5240.1-R: Procedures Governing the Activities of DoD
Intelligence Components That Affect United States Persons
SECNAVINST 3820.3E: Oversight of Intelligence Activities within the Department of the Navy
112.9 Define the difference between a US citizen and a US person with regards to US Intelligence Oversight
U.S. citizens are individuals born in the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, or Swain's Island; foreign-born children, under age 18, residing in the U.S. with their birth or adoptive parents, at least one of whom is a U.S. citizen by birth or naturalization; and individuals granted citizenship status by Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS).
The term "U.S. persons" includes U.S. citizens, but is broader. It also includes permanent resident aliens, unincorporated associations substantially composed of U.S. citizens or permanent resident aliens, and corporations incorporated in the U.S. and not directed and controlled by a foreign government.
112.10 Define intelligence preparation of the battlespace environment
An analytical methodology employed to reduce uncertainties concerning the enemy, environment, and terrain for all types of operations. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace builds an extensive database for each potential area in which a unit may be required to operate. The database is then analyzed in detail to determine the impact of the enemy, environment, and terrain on operations and presents it in graphic form. Intelligence preparation of the battlespace is a continuing process
112.11 Define the mission of Fleet Intelligence Office and its two subordinate commands
To organize and prioritize manpower, training, modernization and maintenance requirements and capabilities of command and control architecture networks, cryptologic and space related systems and intelligence and information operations activities, and to coordinate with Type Commanders (Navy Surface Forces, Naval Air Forces, Navy Submarine Forces, Naval Expeditionary Forces) to deliver interoperable, relevant and ready forces at the right time at the best cost today and in the future.
112.12 Explain ISR mission requirements and fundamentals
Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance requirements generally focus on meeting the commander's intelligence needs in order to prevent surprise, support war gaming and planning, support decisions related to friendly COAs, engage high payoff targets in support of friendly COA.
Fundamentals: Commanders integrate ISR missions into a single plan that capitalizes on the different capabilities of each element and other information-gathering assets. They synchronize reconnaissance and surveillance missions that employ maneuver units with both the ISR plan and scheme of maneuver. The battalion uses intelligence products developed at higher echelons to identify gaps in the intelligence process. The battalion conducts reconnaissance and surveillance operations to fill the battalion CCIR
112.13 Explain the function of an Intelligence Fusion Cell
They serve as the central hub for collection, fusion, analysis and dissemination of intelligence and information to operating units, Department of Homeland Security and all members of the IC, including DoD and key decision makers at the national level.
112.14 Describe the following
a. HUMINT: Human Intelligence is the gathering of information through human contact. It is, along with signals intelligence and imagery intelligence, one of the three traditional means of intelligence gathering.
b. OSINT: Open Source Information is derived from newspapers, journals, radio and television, and the internet.
c. MASINT: Measurement and Signature Intelligence is scientific and technical intelligence information obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis of data (metric, angle, spatial, wavelength, time dependence, modulation, plasma, and hydromagnetic) derived from specific technical sensors for purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the source, emitter, or sender and to facilitate subsequent identification and/or measurement of the same.
d. SIGINT: Signals Intelligence is a category of intelligence that includes transmissions associated with communications, radars, and weapons systems used by our adversaries.
e. COMINT: Communications Intelligence is intelligence gained through the interception of foreign communications, excluding open radio and television broadcasts. It is a subset of SIGINT.
f. FISINT: Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence is technical information and intelligence derived from the intercept of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of nonUS aerospace, surface and subsurface systems. Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence is a subcategory of signals intelligence. Foreign instrumentation signals include but are not limited to telemetry, beaconry, electronic interrogators, and video data links.
g. ELINT: Electronic Intelligence is technical and geo-location intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiation emanating from detonations or radioactive sources.
h. IMINT: Imagery Intelligence is intelligence derived from the exploitation of collection by visual photography, infrared sensors, lasers, electro-optics, and radar sensors such as synthetic aperture radar wherein images of objects are reproduced optically or electronically on film, electronic display devices, or other media.
i. ACINT: Acoustic Intelligence is intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena.
112.15 Give 3 examples of intelligence briefs
Basic Imagery Interpretation Brief: A third-phase textual/graphic presentation in hard copy of a particular objective that will aid in the consumer's comprehension of the object.
Target Brief: Consolidated reference, including photos, maps, and collateral materials, on a given target for presentation to an attack crew.
Special Interest Rig Brief: The special interest rig is required when a target is to be photographed for the first time or when specific areas of interest on a particular vessel need photographing; before this type of mission is flown, a special briefing is conducted to establish which specific rigs should be flown to satisfy mission requirements.
112.16 Define the role of an Intelligence watch floor
Intelligence watch floors include order of battle analysis, identification of adversary COGs, analysis of adversary command, control, communications, and computers, targeting support, collection management, and maintenance of a 24-hour staff.
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