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67 terms

Disorders/Treatment

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DSM-IV
diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders- criteria used to diagnose a mental disorder
Anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
panic attacks
attacks marked by intense heart palpitations, pressure or pain in the chest, dizziness or unsteadiness, sweating, and a feeling of faintness
obsessions
persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress
compulsions
irresistible impulses to perform senseless acts
OCD
repetitive behaviors, mental attacks, behaviors, preventing, reducing distress, prevented some dreaded event, reconizes obsessions are excessive or unreasonable, not apply to kids
mood disorders
class of psychological disorders involving disturbances in mood states, such as major depression and bipolar disorder
depression
a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity
persistant depressive disorder
minor depressive episode, fills most of the day nearly everyday for two or more years
mania
an intense or extreme enthusiasm or excitement
bipolar disorder
a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
paranoid personality
Characterized by recurrent delusions of persecution and jealousy with suspicion and mistrust of other people; quick to take offense.
avoidant personality
extremely sensitive to rejection and therefore avoid relationships, unless they bring uncritical acceptance
narcissism
an exceptional interest in and admiration for yourself
histrionic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by amorality and lack of affect
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
psychogenic amnesia
loss of all or part of memory; does not have a physical cause
psychogenic fugue
dissociative disorder in which a person forgets who who they are and leaves home to creates a new life
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
conversion disorder
a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)
PTSD
a disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
hypochondria
chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
schizophrenia
any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
clang associations
psychotic speech in which words are rhymed and spoken for their appealing sound
word salad
jumble of incoherent speech as sometimes heard in schizophrenia
flat effect
lack of emotional response; no expression of feeling; voice monotonous and face immobile
catatonic schizophrenia
a form of schizophrenia characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods
undifferentiated schizophrenia
mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria for any one type of schizophrenia
disorganized schizophrenia
a form of schizophrenia characterized by severe disintegration of personality including erratic speech and childish mannerisms and bizarre behavior
dopamine
neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system, neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
latent content
(psychoanalysis) hidden meaning of a fantasy or dream
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
systematic desensitization
a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety
flooding
a technique used in behavior therapy
counterconditioning
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning
aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
behavioral records
ways of changing unwanted habits, keep a running record of when a given habit or behavior occurs
token economy
conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards
rational emotive therapy
A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave.
client-centered therapy
Therapy in which the therapist listens empathetically to the patient and offers unconditional positive regard.
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
group therapy
psychotherapy where multiple people meet regularly to interact and help one another to achieve insight into their feelings and behavior; allows the therapist to see how the client interacts with others, offers a social support, and shows the client that s/he is not the only person with that problem; can be less expensive; includes family, couples, and self-help groups.
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
eclectic therapy
therapeutic approach that draws upon principles and techniques representing different schools of therapy
psychopharmacology
drug therapy
psychosurgery
brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
prozac
a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant (trade name Prozac)
antipsychotic drugs
biological treatment option used to treat the severe psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia; effective for treating hallucinations; blocks dopamine receptors; Examples: thorazine, therazine, clozapine,
clorazil
Sometimes awakens catatonic (unresponsive) patients (antipsychotic)
thorazine
a drug (trade name Thorazine) derived from phenothiazine that has anti-psychotic effects and is used as a sedative and tranquilizer
anti-psychotic medication
medication that reduces psychotic symptoms
anti-anxiety medication
benzodiazepines, increase activity of GABA
valium
a tranquilizer (trade name Valium) used to relieve anxiety and relax muscles
librium
a tranquilizer (trade names Librium and Libritabs) used in the treatment of alcoholism
antidepressents
a class of drugs that relieve the symptoms of depression
lithium
a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorders
placebo effect
any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo
frontal lobotomy
surgical interruption of nerve tracts to and from the frontal lobe of the brain