Social Psychology CH 4

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Short-term memory is ________, while long term memory is ________.
information that is currently activated; information from past experience that may or may not be currently activated.
The process of information being stored in short-term memory is called _________, while the process of information being stored in long-term memory is called __________.
encoding;consolidation
Which of the following statements is an accurate description of the relationship between schemas and memory?
We often remember information that matches our schemas, and ignore information that conflicts with our schemas.
Hae Min is trying to remember the day that her friend Carlos went missing. The police are asking her to recall everything about that day as part of their investigation of Carlos's disappearance. Which of the following statements best characterizes what Hae Min's process of remembering the day will be like?
Her memory of the day will be a fragmentary and reconstructive process, biased by her schemas, and she will only be able to remember some pieces of information, subjectively interpreted.
In a study, participants watched a videotape of a woman they believed was either a librarian or a waitress, who claimed to like beer and classical music. When participants were asked what they remembered about the woman, those who believed she was a librarian were more likely to recall that she liked classical music, those who believed she was a waitress remembered that she liked beer. What does this study illustrate?
The role of schemas shaping memory
At the beginning of a romantic relationship, Reema feels like she may or may not be in love with her new partner. Half a year later, Reema feels very much in love and is contemplating getting married to her partner. What does research suggest Reema's memory will be of the beginning of her relationship?
She will remember being in love with her partner from the beginning.
Which of the following statements is true about the relationship between feelings and memory?
People generally remember events as being more negative than they actually were.
The term "mood-congruent memory" refers to the fact that:
People are more likely to remember negative information when in a negative mood, and positive information in a positive mood.
Hakeem is being asked to complete a psychology study about his childhood. At the beginning of the study, he is given a piece of candy in exchange for participating - and Hakeem loves candy. What does research suggest he will remember about his childhood?
He will primarily focus on the positive details of his childhood.
How does the phenomenon of mood-congruent memory explain why depress individuals have trouble recalling past positive events?
Because depressed people are usually in a negative mood, it is easier for them to recall negative events.
In the context of social cognition, what does the concept of dialecticism refer to?
A tolerance for inconsistency and change in thinking about the world and others.
The process by which cues that are given after an event can plant false information into memory is referred to as __________.
The misinformation effect
A classic study investigated people's memory for a car accident they had watched on film. Compared to people who were asked "How fast was the car going when it HIT the other car?" people who were asked "How fast was the car going when it SMASHED INTO the other car":
Recalled that there was broken glass at the scene of the accident.
Which of the following reasons is NOT a likely reason why repressed memories may actually be false?
Research suggests that it is impossible for any memory to be outside of conscious awareness.
Which of the following is an example of an availability heuristic?
Being more afraid of flying than driving because of heavy media coverage of airplane crashes.
The ease of retrieval effects refers to the fact that:
People judge how frequently an event occurs on the basis of how easily they can retrieve examples of that event.
Ricardo and Monique are in couple's therapy because they often argue with each other. On one day, their therapist asks each of them to think of 5 times in which they provoked the other person into an argument. On another day, their therapist ask them to think of 10 times when they did the same thing. According to research, what will the effect of the therapist's technique be on making Ricardo and Monique think of themselves as argumentative?
Both Ricardo and Monique will probably see themselves as more argumentative on the day when they are asked to recall 5 incidents.
In a classic study, Heider and Simmel (1944) showed people a film clip of a large triangle and small triangle moving around and out of a larger square. When the researchers asked people what was going on in the clip, what were the findings?
People explained the events in terms of intentional actions committed by the shapes.
A causal attribution is:
the explanation that people use for what caused a particular event or behavior.
Chuan decides to go to a bar on a Friday night. Initially, Chuan is very happy to spend a night out. However, at the bar, he accidentally bumps into another man and spills his drink. The man becomes very angry, because he infers that Chuan intentionally knocked into him in order to spill his drink. In this scenario, what is the best example of causal attribution?
the other man's inference that Chuan deliberately knocked him over.
What are the two fundamental dimensions along which Heidel believed causal attributions vary?
locus of causality; stability
A(n) ______ locus of causality refers to behavior being caused by a characteristic of the actor, while a(n) _________ locus of causality refers to a behavior being caused by a characteristic of the situation
internal; external
If Tyrell believes he failed his math test because he has no mathematical intelligence, than he is making a(n) ________ attribution about his behavior.
internal
Ligiea believes that she failed her first test in college because she is attending a very difficult and prominent university. She is making a(n) _________ attribution about her behavior.
stable external
In classic research, Dweck (1975) found that boys tend to attribute their poor performance in math to _______ factors, whereas girls tend to attribute their poor performance in math to ________ factors
unstable internal; stable internal
According to Dweck's (1975) work on attributions and academic performance, what is the most productive form of causal attribution in a learning environment?
unstable internal
An _______ theory sees a particular attribute as something fixed that a person can't control or change, whereas an _______ theory sees a particular attribute as something malleable that can increase or decrease
entity; incremental
Braden believes that if he works hard in school, he can make himself more intelligent. This suggests that Braden has an _______ theory of intelligence
incremental
What does research suggest about foreign-exchange students who have strong entity theories of achievement and intelligence?
They are less likely to attend remedial courses.
Which of the following consequences does research suggest will NOT result from convincing a person to adopt an incremental theory of intelligence
They will tend not to pursue opportunities to improve their intelligence.
In which of the following cases is a person MOST likely to engage in an elaborate, thoughtful process of causal attribution to understand an event?
If the even is completely unexpected.
When we attribute to an actor the attitude, desire, or trait that corresponds to an action they have committed, this is called a(n) ___________?
correspondent inference
Dyna sees a woman shouting at another woman on the street. Dyna decides that this woman must be aggressive. Dyna has just made a(n)__________?
correspondent inference
In which of the following situations are we LEAST likely to make a correspondent inference about a person who is screaming wildly?
when they are at a football game
The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to:
attribute behavior to internal qualities of an actor and underestimate situational factors.
A 1967 study demonstrating the fundamental attribution error assigned participants to read and essay that was either in favor of or against Fidel Castro. Participants were also randomly assigned to be told that the author of the essay either freely chose to write it or was forced to write it on that particular theme. What were the results of the study?
Participants believed the author's attitude toward Fidel Castro corresponded to the essay that was written, regardless of whether the person was forced to write the essay or had chosen to do so.
Research has shown that which of the following demographic groups is relatively more likely to make the fundamental attribution error?
political conservatives
The actor-observer effect describes the tendency:
to make internal attributions for the behavior of others and external attributions for our own behavior.
A classic study by Storms (1973) showed that when people were engaged in a conversation, they thought that ________ was leading the conversation; but when they watched a video of the conversation from their partner's perspective, they thought that ________ was/were leading the conversation.
their partner; they (the participant)
People are more likely to make ______ attributions for their failures, and ______ attributions for their successes.
external; internal
What is one possible way to reduce the interpersonal conflicts that can arise from the actor-observer effect?
to have each person view a situation from the perspective of the other.
Tong is late for his date with Juanita because traffic on the freeway was unusually bad. Juanita is angry with Tong when he arrives. What does research on the actor-observer effect suggest each of these people will think about the other?
Tong thinks Juanita is angry because she is always angry; Juanita thinks Tong is late because he is always late.
People from individualist cultures are more likely to make ________ attributions for people's behavior, while those from collectivist cultures are more likely to make ______ attributions for people's behavior.
internal; external
The covariation principle refers to:
the tendency to see a causal relationship between an event and an outcome when they happen at the same time.
Navi has realized that whenever her friend Eloise is around, she begins to feel angry. If Navi draws an inference based on the covariation principle, what will she conclude?
Eloise causes Navi to be angry
In the area of causal attribution research, magical thinking refers to?
the tendency to believe that simply having thoughts about an event before it occurs can influence that event.
Research suggest that magical thinking and superstitious behavior is relatively more likely amongst:
people with a strong need for control experiencing a high-stress situation.
Blaming victims for the suffering they experience is one example of what phenomenon?
people's desire to believe that the world is just
People who suffer damage to the fusiform face area (FFA) tend to suffer from:
prosopagnosia
What does research suggest about people's ability to form impressions of others?
people can form a fairly accurate impression of another person in about 30 seconds
Which of the following research findings is an actual finding from research on people's personalities?
Preference for music with vocals is a reliable indicator of extraversion
Theory of mind refers to:
a set of ideas about other people's thoughts, desires, feelings, and intentions based on what we know about them and the situation they are in.
When (around the age of four) children realize that their own beliefs and desires are separate from other people's beliefs and desires, they have developed:
Theory Of Mind
People with which of the following disorders typically have diminished theory of mind?
autism
Mirror neurons are:
activated both when one performs an action oneself and when one simply observes another person perform that action.
Victor is meeting another student whom he did not know previously. He will have to work with this student on a class project. Instantly, when Victor meets this student, she vaguely reminds him of his good friend Mari (even though he does not consciously recognize this). Victor immediately gets the feeling that he is going to get along well with this new student. What process just occurred?
transference
False consensus refers to:
a tendency to assume that other people share our own attitudes, opinions, and preferences.
Which of the following reasons is NOT a reason why people often experience the phenomenon of false consensus
because people typically expose themselves to diverse forms of news media
In the context of implicit personality theories, a central trait like "warm" and "cold" is:
a trait that dominates other people\s impression of a person, and to which they mold their understanding of the person's other, non-central traits.
Wei has a stereotype that lawyers are greedy and ruthless. During the trial of a lawyer for embezzlement charges, Wei serves on the jury and has to make a decision about the verdict in the evening, even though she is a morning person. What does research suggest Wei will do?
find the defendant guilty
Alonzo hears a description of a person who sounds very much like a librarian to him. Even if Alonzo knows that the person comes from a part of the state where there are very few (perhaps only one) libraries, he is still as likely to believe that the person is a librarian as he would be if that person came from a different part of the state. This is an example of:
the representativeness heuristic
In a classic study by Asch, participants read some traits of a person whom they did not know. In one condition, participants read that the person was "intelligent, industrious, and envious." In the other condition, participants read that the person was "envious, intelligent, and industrious.: The results showed that people liked the person more in the first condition. What phenomenon did this study demonstrate?
The primary effect
When someone we think is __________ does something we think is _______, we remember this much better than if it was the other way around.
good;bad
A counterfactual is:
An imagined alternative that runs counter to what actually happened.
Why are people typically more upset if they miss an opportunity (such as making a flight on time) by a very short amount of time compared to if they miss the same opportunity by a fairly long amount of time?
It is easier to generate counterfactuals if we miss and opportunity by a short amount of time.
What is an upward counterfactual?
an imagined alternative that is better than what actually happened.
As people age, what are they most likely to regret?
desirable actions that they did not commit.
Which of the following situations is most likely to generate feelings of guilt and regret?
engaging in an upward counterfactual
What is a downward counterfactual?
an imaged alternative that is worse than what actually happened.
When is it most helpful to generate upward counterfactuals?
when a negative event is likely to reoccur, and will be under our control.
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