AP Biology Exam Prep
Questions to get ready for the AP Biology test
Terms in this set (185)
It is a polar molecule- hydrogen is positive and oxygen is negative
What is water's most important feature?
Allows four more molecules to bond to the original
What does hydrogen bonding do for water?
What is the ability of water molecules to stick together?
What is the ability of water to adhere to molecules other than water?
What is the measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of water?
What is the amount of energy, in the form of heat, it takes to raise or lower the temperature of one gram of a substance 1 degree celsius?
High- Slow evaporation
Does water have a low or high specific heat?
What is the study of carbon containing compounds?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
What are the four macromolecule groups?
What are groups of accessory elements that attach to a molecule that give them a different structure and function?
Hydrogen bonded to oxygen; alcohols
What does the hydroxyl group have and what are they considered?
What is the group that carbon is joined to oxygen via a double bond?
If the carbonyl group is attached to the end of a carbon skeleton, its called what?
If its not attached there, what is it called?
A carbon double bonded to an oxygen and a hydroxyl (Combination of carbonyl and hydroxyl)
What does the carboxyl group consist of?
Amino Group; Create Proteins
What is the group with a nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms and one carbon? What do they do?
a phosphate ion covalently attached to the carbon skeleton; Energy
What is a phosphate group? What is it associated with?
Dehydration reaction (Condensation Reaction)
What reaction causes the synthesis of polymers?
What reaction causes the breakdown of polymers?
What is the monomer of carbohydrates? What is the most important simple sugar?
What is the covalent bond that is formed between monosaccharides?
glucose/glucose; glucose/fructose; glucose/galactose
What makes up maltose? Sucrose? Lactose?
Storage is starch for plants and structural is cellulose for plants. (Like chitin)
What is the difference between a storage and structural polysaccharide?
What is the only class of large molecules that are not considered polymers?
Lipids are the major components of what?
a glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What makes up a fat? (AKA triglyceride)
What are long chains or carbon attached to a carboxyl group?
Saturated have no double bonds between carbon atoms and unsaturated have some double bonds
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
A glycerol, phosphate, and 2 fatty acids
What do phospholipids consist of?
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic; Biological Membranes
Phospholipids are what towards water? What do they make up?
What are lipids that consist of 4 fused rings?
What are molecules that perform structural catalytic, signaling, defense, and transport duties in a cell?
Amino Acids; 20
Proteins are made of what? How many of those are there total?
What is the covalent bond formed between two amino acids?
primary- sequence of amino acids
secondary-interation of hydrogen bonds
Tertiary- interaction between the helix and pleated sheet
Quaternary- 2 or more polypeptide interaction
What are the four levels of protein organization?
What is the inactive form of a protein? (This also occurs when the protein is taken out of its natural habitat)
What is the totality of all chemical reaction that occur within an organism?
set of reactions that consume energy to make molecules
What are anabolic reactions?
What are reactions that produce energy>
First Law of Thermodynamics
What states that energy can neither be created of destroyed but can change from one form into another?
Second Law of Thermodynamics
What states that every energy transfer increases the entropy of the universe?
What is the total amount of energy in a system that can be tapped into to do work?
What is a reaction that produces a net release of free energy?
What is a reaction that absorbs free energy?
What is using the products of exergonic to help run the endergonic reaction?
What are biological elements that speed up a reaction without being consumed or produced by the reaction?
lowers the activation energy by combing with the substrate, therefore catalyzing the reaction
How does an enzyme work?
enzymes active sites and the substrate bind to one another inducing a slight change in structure promoting a reaction
What is the induced fit model of Catalysis?
Allosteric Binding Site
What is the portion of the enzyme that a regulator binds to?
when the end product of a biological pathway inhibits the activity if an enzyme involved in that pathway
What is feedback inhibition?
Transmission is used to view the internal components and scanning is used to view the surface
What is the difference between transmission electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes?
ability to use centrifuges to split the cell apart
What is cell fractionation?
DNA floating in cytoplasm in prokaryotes
What is the nucleoid region?
set of proteins that give the nucleus structure
What is nuclear lamina?
Fluid Mosaic Model
What is the model that states the membrane is a mosaic of proteins that are attached to phospholipids and that can move laterally?
Lowers the temperature it takes to solidify
What does cholesterol do for the membrane?
What are transmembrane protein with amphipathic portions?
What are proteins that bind to the integral proteins on the outside of the cell membrane?
Transport, enzymatic Activity, Signal Transduction and Communication, cell to cell contact
What are the four functions of membrane proteins?
What is the tendency for molecules to move from a high concentration to a lower concentration?
What is the movement of molecules across the membrane with the aid of membrane transport proteins?
What is the movement against the concentration gradient and requires ATP?
What are the different membranes that are within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell?
Synthesizes lipids, carbohydrates, and detoxifies drugs
What does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum do?
synthesis of proteins and new membranes (contains ribosomes)
What does the rough endoplasmic reticulum do?
What organelle ships and manufactures molecules?
What organelle contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down macromolecules
Store wastes and water
Vacuoles do what?
What is the powerhouse of the cell that produces ATP and directly requires oxygen?
Cristae that make up the mitochondrial matrix
What are the inner components of mitochondria?
What are the organelles made of membranous sacs called thylakoids and grana?
What are membrane bound organelles that transfers hydrogen from compounds to produce hydrogen peroxide?
An array of fibers that span the entire cell giving it mechanical support and shape
What is the cytoskeleton?
What are the organelles near the nucleus that produce microtubules and have centrioles derived from them?
Cilia and Flagella
What two appendages are on the cells that allow for movement?
What is the organized structure of DNA that is made up of genes?
The process in which a eukaryotic cell divides its nucleus followed by cytokinesis
What is cell division in prokaryotes in which the cells spilt into two?
fragmentation of nuclear membrane
chromatin condenses together into chromosomes
sister chromatids attached at the centromere
formation of spindle fibers
What occurs in prophase?
microtubules attach to kinetochores
chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
What occurs in Metaphase?
Separation of sister chromatids
breakdown the pole forces
What occurs in Anaphase
nuclear envelope starts to from and cytokinesis is in this phase as well
What occurs in Telophase?
Regulate the process of passing from one stage the next, maintaining homeostasis
What do checkpoints in the cell cycle do?
What is a chemical reaction having a common intermediate in which energy is transferred from one reaction to another?
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis OR electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
Give an example a coupled reaction.
What is the loss of electrons? What is the gain of electrons?
NAD+ and FAD
What are the two electron and hydrogen carrier molecules that carry energy?
Where does glycolysis take place? And is it anaerobic or aerobic?
Splits into 3 carbon molecules called pyruvate, 2 NADH and 4 ATP overall but two are used
What happens to the 6 carbon sugar in glycolysis? And what other products are present at the end?
It is decarboxylated, CO2
How does pyruvate transfer into Acetyl CoA? What is released?
Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
Acetyl CoA is added to Oxaloacetate
How is citrate made?
protons in the chain accept electrons from NADH and FADH2
What happens in the electron transport chain?
Oxidation-reduction reaction that end with the receptor molecule being changed into water
What powers the electron transport chain?
What is ETC coupled with to produce the ATP
Proton Motive Force
What is the force that is created by the membrane due to the h+ gradient?
Anaerobic process in which glycolysis takes place
What is fermentation?
Lactic acid, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH
In lactic acid fermentation, what is pyruvate converted to?
Bacteria and because they don't have mitochondria
Which organisms use fermentation and why?
Acetylaldehyde to ethanol, 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 CO2
In alcohol fermentation, what is pyruvate converted into?
Organisms that produce their own food by using light energy (Photosynthesis)
What are photoautotrophs?
NADPH, ATP, O2
What are the products of the light dependent reactions?
Red and Purple
What colors are absorbed by chlorophyll a?
Yellow and Blue
What colors are absorbed by chlorophyll b?
The wavelengths to protect the chlorophyll
What do the carotenoids absorb?
What are the light-gathering centers that contain chlorophyll and the accessory molecules?
Non-Cyclic Electron Flow
What is the route of electrons in the light dependent reactions?
Water is spilt and molecular oxygen is produced
What happens to the excited electrons to keep them replenished?
Passed down a second ETC and produces NADPH
After ATP is produced by the chemiosmosis in photosynthesis, what happens to the electrons in the second photosystem?
NO net production because the molecules are used
When the route of electrons is a cyclic electron flow, what is produced?
Organic Compounds most often glucose
What are the products of the Light Independent reactions?
Stroma of the chloroplast
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
What method of carbon fixation is used when less CO2 is entering the Calvin Cycle and Rubisco is used to fix oxygen instead?
What method of carbon fixation is used to produce 4 carbon compounds and is most common in bundle sheath cells?
Plants keep their stomata during the day and open them during the night
What is done by CAM plants?
What is a genes specific location on a chromosome?
What is the form of reproduction that does not require meiosis or fertilization and has no genetic variation in the offspring?
What are body cells that are diploid called?
What are the sex cells such as an egg or sperm called?
Replication of Chromosomes
What precedes meiosis?
When does crossing over occur?
What is a heritable feature such as hair color?
What is a variant of a characteristic?
What is an alternative form of a gene?
What is the genetic organization of an organism?
What is an organism appearance?
States that alleles are separated into gametes during meiosis
What is the law of segregation?
Who is the father of genetics that worked with pea plants?
What is a cross that tracks the inheritance pattern of a single character?
What is a cross that determines whether the dominant parent is either homozygous dominant or recessive?
Law of Independent Assortment
What states that alleles are sorted independently of one another?
What is it called when the phenotype of the offspring has an appearance that is between that of both the parents?
this is when both alleles are expressed at the same time
What is codominance?
What is the best example of multiple alleles?
What is when one genes cause multiple different phenotypic effects on an organism?
What is when one gene affects the expression of another gene?
When two or more gene affects one phenotype
What is polygenic inheritance?
Linked genes in fruit flys
What did Thomas Hunt Morgan discover?
What are genes that are carried on the X-chromosome?
What is it called when one of the females chromosomes are randomly inactivated?
Abnormal chromosome number if occurs when meiosis I and if it occurs in meiosis II there are 2 normal cells and 2 cells with abnormal number
What is nondisjunction?
What is it called when a cell has more than two chromosome sets?
Parts of the chromosome reverses its orientation
What is inversion?
What is it called when one part of a chromosome is attached to another part of a different chromosome?
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
What are the three types of RNA involved in gene expression?
5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
What are the three components of a nucleotide?
What are the purines?
Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil
What are the pyrimidines?
What is a nitrogenous base and sugar without the phosphate group?
Griffith, Avery, McCarty, MacLeod
Who are the four scientists that performed transformation experiments?
Heat Killed cells with Living cells and the result was that DNA was the transforming agent
What did the transformation experiments use? And what did that prove?
Injected radioactively labeled DNA into bacteria and when the DNA was found in the host bacterium, it indicated that the DNA was the genetic material
What was the Hershey-Chase experiment and what did it prove?
Whose experiment proved that replication of DNA is semi-conservative (one old strand is used to make the new)?
What mechanism is used in the replication of DNA?
What is the daughter stand that is synthesized into the replication fork called?
What is the daughter stand that is synthesized away from the replication?
Which of the two strands is synthesized in a discontinuous fashion or in fragments called Okazaki fragments?
What enzyme joins the Okazaki fragments into a single strand?
Synthesis of a single stranded mRNA from DNA
What is transcription?
What is the major enzyme that runs the transcription?
Binds to the promoter with a TATA box
What does the RNA Polymerase do to initiate transcription?
Poly A-Tail and a 7 cap
What is added to the transcribed mRNA to aid in stability?
The synthesis of protein from the mRNA
What is translation?
Cytoplasm and Rough ER
Where does translation take place?
Bring the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome for it to bind to the sequence
After the start codon is located during translation, what does t-RNA do?
Enzymatic reaction to form the peptide bond
What does the rRNA promote?
What is the start codon for translation?
UAA, UGA, UAG
What are the three stop codons for translation?
Base Pair Substitution and Base Pair insertions and deletions
What are the two types of point mutations?
No change in the protein sequence because the genetic code is redundant
What is the result of a silent mutation?
Change in the protein sequence because the code calls for a different amino acid and thus a different protein
What is the result of a missense mutation?
Premature stop codon is put into the protein and it is usually nonfunctional protein
What is the result of a nonsense mutation?
Change in protein sequence and usually a nonfunctional protein
What is the result of a insertion or deletion of a single base pair?
There is an addition or loss of an amino acid and the protein can normally maintain some of its normal function
What is the result of a insertion or deletion of a three base pair?
What is the protein coat that protects the viral genome called?
What is the extra protection layer that surrounds the capsid called?
What is the home where the virus will invade and live off of? (This is required)
What is the calls of drugs produced by cells in response to viral infection?
What is the type of viral reproduction that eventually kills the host?
What is the type of viral reproduction where the virus replicates its genome but does not kill the host?
What is a RNA virus that uses the enzyme called reverse transcriptase to synthesize DNA from and RNA strand?
A protein infectious particle that converts other normal proteins into a mutant form
What is a prion?
What is a autonomous piece of self-replicating DNA?
What is it called when bacteriophage act as vectors by moving bacterial genes from one cell to another?
What is a set of genes under control of promoter?
The operator sequence where the act as blockade to stop the binding of RNA Polymerase
What do repressor proteins bind to in the operon?
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