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change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms


well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations


ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment


the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources


a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information


the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil

Origin of species

Darwin's first book about natural selection

Galapagos Islands

Chain of islands near South America where Darwin developed his theory of natural selection by studying the unique life there.

Survival of the fittest

when orgamism fight for food and to live

common ancestor

the shared ancestor of new, different species that arose from one population

fossil record

chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers


the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants

Charles Darwin

English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)

Natural selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment


the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)


organisms produce more offspring than can survive

genetic variation

The variety of different types of genes in a species or population.

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