49 terms

Computer Engineering I 102

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Adobe Systems
Multimedia and creativity software company founded by John Warnock and Charles Geschke; licensed their PostScript language for use in laser printers so that what you saw on the monitor was the same as the output on your printer
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
Packet switching network that was first to implement TCP/IP
Altair 8800
First personal computer; came as a computer kit developed at MITS; would eventually run BASIC licensed from Microsoft
Alto
The first computer workstation with a built-in mouse for inputting data, it stored files in windows, had icons and menus, and could link to a local area network
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Character code built for the letters, number and symbols on a keyboard
Apple II
Highly successful mass-produced microcomputer designed by Steve Wozniak and stylized and marketed by Steve Jobs
Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
Computer language that was intended for simplicity of use
Binary
The number system that computer language is built on, it only has 2 characters, 0 and 1, and is also known as a base 2 numbering system
Compaq
First company to manufacture a PC clone
CP/M
Early operating system created by Gary Kildall for Intel 8080 based microcomputers
Disk Operating System
Operating system designed for the IBM PC compatible market from 1981 to 1995; Windows 1.0 through 3.1 required this OS in order to run
Ethernet
Local area network technology developed at Xerox PARC to link computer workstations together
GNUs Not Unix
Unix-like operating system but completely free
Hexadecimal
Base 16 numbering system which uses the numbers 0-9 and letters A-F to represent the decimal numbers 0-15
Homebrew Computer Club
Computer hobbyist group that first formed to figure out what could be done with the Altair 8800
IBM PC
First MS-DOS based personal computer
Intel
The world's largest microprocessor manufacturer
International Business Machines
Server manufacturer that got into the personal computer business in 1981
Linux
Free and open source operating system software
Macintosh
First successful mouse-driven computer with a graphical user interface and built-in applications, MacPaint and MacWrite; it provided WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) word processing using Adobe printer drivers
Microsoft
Founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen to develop BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800 and is to date the largest manufacturer or PC-compatible operating system and office software
MITS
Electronics company founded in Albuquerque, NM that created the Altair 8800 computer kit
Netscape Navigator
The first, most dominant web browser
Palo Alto Research Center
Division of the Xerox Corporation that developed items such as laser printing, Ethernet, the GUI and object-oriented programming
UNIX
Originally developed by Bell Labs, it is an operating system that allows multiple users and multitasking
VisiCalc
The first computer spreadsheet program
Windows
Graphical user interface and operating system developed by Microsoft
World Wide Web
Invented by Tim Berners-Lee, it is a system of interlinked hypertext documents that can be accessed by the Internet; web browsers are needed to view web pages
XEROX Corporation
Company originally headquartered in Stamford, CT that produces copiers and other printing devices; their researchers developed the graphical user interface, computer mouse and desktop computing
Accuracy
Preciseness of a computer depending on the instructions and the type of machine being used
Desktop
Computer that will be set up more permanently and will provide more power, graphics, storage and versatility of applications that can be run at less cost than portable models
Diligence
The ability to perform tasks without loss in accuracy or speed
Input
Function of a computer that allows data to be delivered to the computer; examples of devices are: keyboard, scanner, diskette, CD-ROM, mouse, modem, mouse and digital cameras
Laptop
Also known as a notebook, portable computer that has all of their components (display, keyboard, pointing device in addition to CPU, memory, storage and power) in a light-weight, thin package
Mainframe
Large computer, typically used by corporate or governmental organizations, that processes millions of transactions per day
Netbook
Less powerful and more portable computer than a laptop but similarly fashioned with display, keyboard and pointing device
Output
Function of a computer that allows data to be delivered from the computer.; examples of devices are: monitor, printer, CD-ROM, flash drive and modem
Personal Computer
Computer designed for use by one person
Processing
Function of a computer that allows manipulation and control of information within the computer; examples of devices are: CPU, Control Unit, ALU and cache memory
Reliability
Predetermined standard for computer operation without failure
Resource Sharing
The ability to connect multiple computers so that they have access to larger amounts of information and services
Server
Computer with powerful CPU, more RAM and more storage space that provides network services to other computers
Speed
Measurement of how fast a computer can process data; measured in megahertz or gigahertz, MHz or GHz
Storage
Function of a computer that allows data to be permanently saved to the computer; examples of devices are: hard disk drive, floppy disk, flash drive, CD-ROM, DVD and BluRay
Storage Capacity
The amount of data that can be stored and recalled when needed
Supercomputer
Single computer system that is composed of many high-performance computers working as a single system
Tablet
Portable computer with display, electronic circuitry, flash memory and battery in a single package
Versatility
The ability to perform multiple tasks with ease
Workstation
A desktop computer that has a more powerful CPU, more memory and additional capabilities for special applications