75 terms

Computer Engineering I 103

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Accelerated Graphics Port
Specialized expansion slot used solely for video cards
Advanced Technology Extended
Motherboard form factor that came after AT form factor; the processor and memory slots are at right angles to the expansion slots
Back-Side Bus
Pathways that connect the CPU to the L2 or L3 cache
Basic Input Output System
The first software that is run when the computer is turned on; it contains the power on self-test for hardware components and then passes control of the computer over to an operating system
Bus
The system of pathways on a motherboard over which devices communicate
Chipset
A collection of chips on the motherboard that assist the CPU in working with memory, expansion cards, and onboard peripherals
CMOS Battery
Maintains the data entered in the configuration program
CPU Socket
Location on the motherboard for the brain or control center of the computer to sit in
Form Factor
The specifications and size of a motherboard or power supply
Front Panel Connectors
Plugs, such as HD LED, power LED, power button and reset button, on the front of a case going to the motherboard
Front-Side Bus
Pathways that connect the CPU and memory
I/O Panel
Provides ports in one spot on the back of the motherboard for connecting devices, such as keyboard, mouse, printer, LAN, and so on
Information Technology Extended
Motherboard form factor developed by VIA for specialty-use small form factors and low-power solutions
Integrated
A component that could operate separately but is built into another object to become one unit
Jumper
Small plastic device with a metal strip inside for connecting 2 pins together to form a short and complete a circuit; typically used to set master/slave drive settings, SATA spindle RPM speeds and configurations on the motherboard
Light Emitting Diode
Indicator lamps used on motherboards, cards and computer cases to show the status of events happening with the PC
MicroATX
Motherboard form factor designed to work in standard ATX cases but with a smaller footprint
Motherboard
Spine of the computer that contains all the pathways of wires to connect the CPU to memory and the expansion boards
New Low Profile Extended
Motherboard form factor using a daughter card to allow expansion cards to lie vertically and allow for smaller form factor cases
North Bridge
Subset of the chipset that helps the CPU to manage data coming from memory and integrated video using AGP or PCIe
PCI Express
High-performance expansion slot technology removing the need for AGP or PCI
PCI-X
Expansion slot technology compatible with PCI and used in servers
Peripheral Component Interconnect
Local expansion bus that succeeded the ISA slot and was succeeded by PCIe
Platform Controller Hub
Family of chips that are the successor to the North Bridge and South Bridge chipset for Intel motherboards
RAM Slots
Location for the placement of memory modules on the motherboard
SATA Connectors
L-shaped motherboard connector that offers one data connection to one device
South Bridge
Part of the chipset that helps the CPU interpret data coming from the slower onboard backplane peripherals
Up-Plugging
PCIe specification allowing one to put a shorter PCIe card, ex. x8, into a longer slot, ex. x16
Voltage Regulator Module
Converter jumps the +5 or +12V from a power supply down to different voltages needed on a motherboard by various CPUs
Advanced Micro Devices
Company responsible for manufacturing Phenom, Athlon, Duron, Sempron, and Opteron processors.
Architecture
Refers to the number of internal pathways of a CPU, 32-bit or 64-bit
Cache
Specialized memory residing on-board the processor or processor packaging that stores the information just used by the CPU in an effort to predict what the processor will need next
Central Processing Unit
The brains of the computer
Clock Speed
The maximum rate a CPU can process data per second, referred to in Megahertz or Gigahertz
Gigahertz
CPU speed rating measuring billions of cycles per second
Heat Sink
Metal clip-on device, generally made of aluminum, which sits on top of a CPU and other chips and used in conjunction with a fan to dissipate heat from the CPU
Hyper-Threading
Intel technology that combines two processing threads together allowing a single processing core to process two threads at one time making it seem like two processors
Integrated Graphics Processing Unit
Feature built into the processor die on a CPU to assist with graphics functions
Land Grid Array
Chip interface standard that has pins on the circuit board instead of on the chip packaging; the chip has flat pads that interface with the pins by surface contact only
Liquid Cooling
Cooling method that pumps liquid from outside the system through tubes to blocks that mount to a component like a heat sink
Megahertz
CPU speed rating measuring millions of cycles per second
Multi-Core
CPU chips that contain more than one processing core in single or more package dies
Pin Grid Array
CPU package style with rows and columns of aligned pins
System Fan
Component used to pull in cool air and push hot air out of a computer case
Thermal Paste
Compound applied to a CPU to transfer heat to the heat sink
Throttling
Reduces the operating frequency of the CPU when it is under less demand or using battery power
Virtualization Support
Feature of newer CPUs to make the hardware more effective in assisting with virtualization
Continuity RIMM
Blank memory module required for empty slots using RAMBUS technology
DDR2
Second generation of DDR that works faster than DDR uses less power and is on a 240 pin DIMM
DDR3
Third generation DDR that is faster that DDR2 uses even less power and is on a 240 pin DIMM but the notch is in a different position
DDR4
Fourth generation of DDR, designed to run faster, delivers more bandwidth and is more energy efficient than DDR3
Double Data Rate
SDRAM that transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal
Double-Sided Memory
A chip arrangement scheme in which memory chips can be placed on both sides of the module
Dual Channel
The memory controller can send and receive data from two DIMM channels at the same time requires DDR, DDR2 or DDR3
Dual Inline Memory Module
Memory module with independent contacts on both sides allowing more connectivity to the motherboard resulting in quicker data retrieval.
Dynamic RAM
Type of memory that stores each bit in a separate capacitor and must constantly be refreshed
Error Correction Code
Very sophisticated RAM modules that correct parity errors before they crash the system
Parity Error Checking
Memory error checking that uses the 8th bit of a byte as a parity bit to add up bits to see if the data that is written out is what was intentionally taken from memory
Rambus DRAM
Type of SDRAM developed in the mid-1990s and used RIMM modules
Rambus Inline Memory Modules
Memory module, commonly with a metal cover, used with RDRAM chips and having 184 pins
Random Access Memory
Memory that loses its contents when the power is removed and can access its data in any order
Read Only Memory
Fast memory hardware that holds its contents even when the power is removed; chips often contains firmware
Single Channel
A memory access mode in which the memory controller can only access one module at a time usually resulting in 64-bit memory accesses
Single Sided Memory
Memory module that has chips and pin functions for a single module specification
Small Outline DIMM
Memory module used in small form factor and laptop computers
Static RAM
The type of memory that does not need to be refreshed and that cache memory is made out of
Synchronous Dynamic RAM
Memory that eliminates wait states by synchronizing with the CPU's clock
Triple Channel
The memory controller can send and receive on three DIMM channels at one time greatly increasing transfer speeds, requires 3 DDR3 modules
Berg
Also known as mini-molex; a small 4-pin connector used to plug into floppy drives
Molex
The 4-pin power connector that supplies power from the power supply to storage devices except the floppy drive
PCIe Power Connector
12V, 6 or 8-pin power plug used for the newest types of local bus expansion slots
Power Supply Unit
(PSU) The hardware component that converts AC to DC; has connectors to power the motherboard, fans, disk drives and certain other hardware components
SATA Power Connector
Power plug with an easily identifiable L-shape
Voltage Selector Switch
Manual switch on the back of the power supply to choose between 115 or 230 volts
Wattage
The power rating of a power supply