Terms in this set (81)
translate "O god"; words said by Gandhi when he was shot
activist that fought for Indian Independence; policy of nonviolent protesting
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
leader of the Muslim League; fought for Muslim to have their own state otherwise known as Pakistan
India Act of 1935
promoted India's self-rule against the British forces. Gave India independence
Congress Party leader; wanted all India to act and feel as one nation, defender of nonalignment at the Bandung Conference
Partition of India
Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan; refugees migrated which caused hostility between one another
Between Asia and Africa; was to find a "third path" or alternative to choosing between the US or USSR
Indonesian president; led the Non Alignment Movement
"American War" Vietnam was split into North Vietnam (Ho and communists) and South Vietnam (non communists). South Vietnam avoided elections and prevented the spread of communism but discontent of the people caused guerrilla warfare. America stepped in a spreaded the war into Cambodia along causing the war to end in a draw. This war was ended by the Paris Peace Accord but that did little to stop hostility between the sides
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnam's nationalist communist leader; issued the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence and fought the French out of Vietnam with General Vo Nguyen Giap
the north communist Vietnamese forces
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
gave LBJ the ability to use military force in Southeast Asia (Vietnam in particular) without declaring war
Dien Bien Phu
the longest and most furious battle between France and Vietnam
determined that Vietnam would be split at the seventeenth parallel
Ngo Dinh Diem
first president of the Republic of Vietnam (South)
National Liberation Front, fought for freedom for south Vietnamese.
President Lyndon Johnson
president of USA that ordered the bombing of North Vietnam and started the Vietnam war
Richard Nixon pledged in 1968 to end the war. After his election, he implemented his strategy of turning the war over to the South Vietnamese--termed Vietnamization--by escalating the conflict.
Great Britain served as the mandate power in Palestine after the Great War and, before and during its mandate, made conflicting promises to the Palestinian Arabs and to the Jews migrating to Palestine to establish a secure home-land where they could avoid persecution.
the British government committed itself to the support of a homeland for Jews in Palestine, a commitment engendered in part by the vibrant Zionist movement that had been growing in Europe since the 1890's.
a dedication to combat the violent anti-Semitism prevailing in central and eastern Europe by establishing a national Jewish state. The Zionist dream of returning to Palestine, considered the site of the original Jewish homeland, received a boost from the Balfour Declaration and from the Allies' support for it at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
the Arabs insisted on complete independence under Arab rule, in 1945 the Jews embarked on a course of violent resistance to the British to compel recognition of Jewish demands for self-rule and open immigration. Palestine was turned over to the United Nation who in turn divided the country into two distinct states. A civil war broke out as a result.
Six Day War
this was Israel's response to a build-up of Arab forces along its borders by launching attacks on Egypt and Syria. In six days of fighting, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of East Jerusalem, both previously under Jordanian rule. By the time the United Nations cease-fire took effect on June 11, Israel had more than doubled its size.
a popular mass movement that initiated a series of demonstrations, strikes, and riots against Israeli rule in the Gaza Strip and other occupied territories.
Yom Kippur War
Egyptian and Syrian forces launched an attack against Israel on Yom Kippur.
UN Resolution 242
adopted by the United Nations after the six-day war, it said that Israel could not use force to take over the Arab people's land
Gamal Abdel Nasser
(1918-1970) Egyptian Military leader; committed to opposing Israel and taking command of the Arab world, held begina a political revolution through militarism, ended monarchy, named himself prime minister in 1954 and took control of the government, adopted internationalists position, believed the cold war politics were a new form of imperialism, commended states that joined with foreign powers in military alliances, decided to nationalize the Suez Canal, gained prestige, never got rid of Israel
King of Egypt, ruled the monarchy, taken over by Nasser
Nasser decided to nationalize the canal in 1956 and used the money to finance the construction of a massive dam on the Nile
"the year of Africa"
in 1960 the African colonies of France won their independence, the countries were Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and 13 other colonies in the west and equatorial
Algerian War of Liberation
in 1954 under the command of the National Liberation Front Algeria started the war against France, used Guerilla warfare, the French sent troops in 1958, hundreds of thousands of Algerians died, thousands of french soldiers died, but Algeria got their independence in 1962
National Liberation Front, commanded the Algerian war for independence in 1954, adopted tactics similar to nationalist liberation groups
gained fame as an Algerian revolutionary and as an influential proponent of national liberation for colonial peoples through violent revolution.
African intellectuals established a movement to promote "Blackness"
a leader of the first sub-Saharan African nation to gain independence from colonial rule, became a persuasive spokesperson for pan-African unity.
rebels that embarked on an intermittently violent campaign against Europeans and alleged traitorous Africans
jailed by the British with other nationalist leaders of Kenya.
asserted white supremacy and institutionalized the racial segregation established in the year before 1948.
Afrikaner National Party
party of Nelson Mandela that took part in the African National Party
African National Congress
formed in 1912, gained new young leaders such as Nelson Mandela. established a Freedom Charter
A new young leader of the African National Congress; inspired direct action campaigns to protest apartheid; became the first black president of South Africa
F.W. de Klerk
Became president of South Africa in 1989; he and the National Party began to dismantle the apartheid system; he released Mandela from jail in 1990, legalized the ANC, and worked with Mandela and the ANC to negotiate the end of white minority rule they created a new constitution in April 1994
He reunified China for the first time since the collapse of the Qing dynasty; introduced the first Five-Year Plan
Five Year Plan
Designed to speed up economic development; emphasized improvements in infrastructure and the expansion of heavy industry at the expense of consumer goods
Great Leap Forward or "giant Step Backward"
Continued China's push for development; a way to overtake the industrial production of more developed nationsMao worked to collectivize all land and to manage all business and industrial enterprises collectively; essentially failed
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Far reaching policies that contrarily hampered the very political and economic development that Mao sought
Colleague of Mao: moderated Mao's commitment to Chinese self-sufficiency and isolation and engineered China's entry into the international financial and trading system facilitated by the normalization of relations between China and the U.S. in the 1970s
To push economic development, Deng Xiaoping opened China to influences in foreign, capitalist values by sending thousands of students abroad; Students were exposed to the democratic societies of western Europe and the United States; Deng violently suppressed them when they staged pro-democratic demonstrations at Tiananmen Square in Beijing because he did not want more revolutionary movements; Showed how China faced the issue of maintaining its identity and authoritarian political system when entering the global economy
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru; Served as the prime minister of India from 1966-1977 and 1980-1984; Instituted the "green revolution" to increase agricultural yields, but the poor farmers fell into deeper poverty; In an attempt to control overpopulation, Gandhi began a program of involuntary, repressive birth control; Lost the election of 1977 because of her repeal of democratic principles harsh birth control policy, but regained power in 1980; After her re-election, she faced even greater problems in keeping the state together, like uprisings from Sikhs, who wanted greater autonomy in their region; Gandhi ordered the army to attack the Sikhs' Golden Temple; Later assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards
Son of Indira Gandhi; Became leader of India and offered reconciliation to Sikhs; Assassinated by a terrorist
Muslims in Arab nations began to seek the revival of Islamic identity, values, and power in the political and social sphere; Called for the reinforcement of the sharia, emphasized pan-Islamic unity, and urged the elimination of non-Muslim influences in the Muslim world
Means the right and duty to defend Islam and the Islamic community from unjust attack; Muslim extremists used the concept of jihad to rationalist and legitimize terrorism and revolution because they believed the Muslim world was under attack
The revolution demonstrated the power of Islam as a means of staving off secular foreign influences, especially the U.S.; During the revolution, Shia militants held 69 American hostages in Tehran; Iranian leaders also shut U.S. military bases and confiscated American-owned economic ventures; Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, attempted to take advantage of the revolution and invade Iran
Shah Reza Pahlavi
The CIA helped bring him to power; Shia Muslims despised the shah's secular regime and Iranian businesses hated the influence of U.S. corporations on the economy; The shah fled the country when the Iranian Revolution gained force
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
power was gained by Islamist movement under direction of him during the Iranian revolution
President of Iraq. He launched an attack on Iran, and hoped that it would be a quick victory, which proved to not be true
One million soldiers were killed during this war. Iran was attacked by Iraq, and the war did not end until 8 years later.
A conservative supreme ruler of Iran
a conservative president. He touted Iran's nuclear program and his antipathy to Israel. This made him increase his status in the Islamic world, but it created more tension with the US
Hussein's troops invaded Kuwait. It later led the the Gulf War.
Hussein started this war with the invasion of Kuwait. It ended in a defeat for Iraq and the Iraqi people
The Organization of African Unity. It was created by 32 member states and tried to prevent conflicts that could lead to intervention by former colonial powers
New International Economic Order
Widely supported by the African Nations and was called by a coalition of developing nations. These states sought a more just allocation of global wealth, especially guaranteeing prices and markets for commodities.
President of Mexico from 1934-1940 had invoked and applied reforms to the Mexicans by the Constitution of 1917. He brought land reform and redistribution to a peak in Mexico.
Petroleos Mexicanos a national oil company in control of Mexico's petroleum products.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
often acted harshly and experimented with various economic strategies that decreased or increased Mexico's reliance on foreign markets and capital
a former colonel in the army, and was elected president in 1946. He was an nationalistic militarist, called for industrialization, and supported the working class
Wife of Juan Peron and became a very popular political leader. Created the Eva Peron foundation.
"Shirtless ones," Argentine poor who supported Juan and Eva Peron
Country in Central America where foreign companies such as the United Fruit Company dominated Guatemala's economy. Guatemalan President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman tried to control over the economy by redistributing the land to the peasants.
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
Democratically elected president of Guatemala in 1951. He announced a government seizure of hundreds of thousands of acres of uncultivated land controlled mainly by U.S. investors. He was attempting to reassert Guatemala's control over its economy and its lands for redistribution to the peasants. The U.S. officials believed his policies were communist inspired and they feared a spread of radical doctrines throughout Central America.
United Fruit Company
Dominated Guatemalan economy and its major export crop of bananas.
Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas
Guatemala's neighbor, sent by the U.S. to weaken the Arbenz government. Castillo Armas and his CIA trained noncommunist Guatemalans forced the fall of Arbenz in 1954. He established a military government, returned land to the United Fruit Company, and ruthlessly suppressed opponents with methods that included torture and murder.
Anastacio Somoza Garcia
Demonstrated himself to be a staunch anticommunist U.S. ally, funneled weapons to Guatemala rebels opposing Arbenz, and outlawed the communist party in Nicaragua during the cold war.
Augusto Cesar Sandino and his sons
Controlled Nicaraguan politics for more than forty years, aided by U.S. financial and military support.
Sandinista Front for National Liberation
Created by a few Nicaraguans in honor of the murdered Augusto Augusto Sandino, The Sandinistas, as they became known, launched guerrilla operations aimed at overthrowing the Somozas, and they finally took power in 1979.
recognized the Sandinistas
abandoned and reversed Carter's policies because he believed that the Sandinistas were abetting communist rebels elsewhere in Central America.
Oscar Arias Sanchez
Costa Rican president; worked hard to promote a negotiated end to the Contra war in Nicaragua
Association of Women Concerned about National Crisis or later AMNLAE
The Nicaraguan womens' association formed in 1977 to end Somoza's rule
the theory by Argentine Raul Prebisch that explained Latin American economic problems; it stated that large industrial nations dominated the economy and profited at the expense of export-oriented, less developed/industrialized nations; nations should improve by improving domestic trade, import more, and promote industrial/economic growth