104 terms

Computer Engineering I 106

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Bus
Network topology in which all nodes are connected to a single cable
Hybrid
Network resulting from the use of two or more network topologies
Local Area Network
Computer network within a limited area such as a room or a building
Logical Topology
The way a signal travels from one device to another on a computer network
Mesh
Network topology in which each node is connected to every other node in the network
Metropolitan Area Network
Computer network covering an area, larger than a LAN, of a few city blocks to an entire city and possibly surrounding areas
Personal Area Network
Computer network used for data transmission among a devices such as computers, cell phones and PDAs
Physical Topology
The way devices on a network are arranged
Ring
Network topology in which each node connects to two other nodes forming a single pathway through each node
Star
Network topology in which all nodes connect to a central connectivity device
Topology
The arrangement of all of the elements on a computer network
Wide Area Network
Computer network covering a large geographical area and connecting LANs
Access Point
Provide network access to wireless devices, large networks may require several
Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP) Exterior gateway protocol used to determine best routes across the Internet
Bridge
Filter network traffic between LAN segments improving the flow of data within each segment, a legacy device
Bridge Router
A network device that connects two network segments much like a switch, these devices are rare today because switches do the same thing, provide more ports, and are readily available
Coaxial Cable
A very rugged cable type that is designed to resist interference, commonly used by tv providers
Dialup Networking
When computers use the public telephone system to communicate
Dynamic Route
Route tables maintained by different routing protocols in which routers automatically figure out how to handle traffic
End Device
User connection to the network
Ethernet Over Power
Technology used to communicate data through electrical wiring, using Power Line Connectors
Fiber Optic Cable
A network medium made of glass that transmits data, in the form of light, at very high speeds, the wires are often bright orange or yellow and come in pairs to allow bidirectional communication
Gateway Router
A network device that serves as a connection to other networks for a given set of hosts
Hardware Firewall
Protect individual networks from unauthorized access and attacks
Hub
Extends the reach of a network because it regenerates the electrical signal, it can function as a repeater
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
(IGRP) Cisco-owned and developed protocol that is an improved version of RIP
Intermediary Device
The devices that handle the information exchange in between the end devices
Layer 2 Switch
A switch that transmits traffic based on MAC addresses
Layer 3 Switch
A switch that can operate like a router or switch giving it the ability to transmit traffic based on MAC or IP addresses
MAC Table
A table stored in a device that maintains a list of nearby devices and their respective MAC addresses
Managed
A network device that permits user configuration for advanced control
Media
The various connecting wires and signals that allow the devices to communicate
Open Shortest Path First Protocol
(OSPF) Link-state protocol that monitors if a link is on/off to determine the best way to route traffic
Patch Panel
Commonly used as a place to collect incoming cable runs from various networking devices throughout a facility
Power Over Ethernet
(PoE) The ability to run low voltage power across the last pair of wires in a twisted pair cable, it eliminates the need to run a separate power cord on wall and ceiling mounted network devices
Repeaters
Regenerate weak signals as their primary purpose, also called extenders
Route Table
A list of routes to nearby devices stored in a router or host based on IP addresses
Router
A network layer (layer 3) network device that connects networks together based on IP addresses
Router Information Protocol
(RIP) Distance-vector based protocol that uses an algorithm to determine how to send traffic
Static Route
When route tables are maintained manually by an administrator
Switch
A data link layer (layer 2) network device that connects devices across network segments and directs traffic based on media access control (MAC) addresses
Twisted Pair Cable
A network medium made of copper that can be either shielded or unshielded (STP/UTP), the name comes from the four twisted pairs that exist inside the sheath, the most common types in existence are Category 5, 5e, 6
Unmanaged
A network device that does not permit user configuration, it simply works as is
Uplink
A port on a switch or hub that allows high bandwidth connectivity to another segment
Virtual Local Area Network
(VLAN) A network that connects hosts as if they were on the same physical network even though they may not be, VLANs usually appear in switch and router configurations
Wireless Channels
Use when a device needs to be free and mobile for purposes such as presentation
BNC Connector
Coaxial connector used for LAN connectivity; rotate and click type
Category
A method of rating cable for its maximum data rate; determines the properties a cable must have for a given classification
Data Rate
The theoretical maximum amount of data that can be transferred through a cable per second
F-Type Connector
Coaxial connector used for cable, TV, and Internet; screw type
LC
Most common fiber optic connector; multi or single mode, SFF, snap-in, square, 1.25 mm core
Multi-Mode Fiber
A less expensive fiber optic cable made for LAN applications
Plenum Space
Ventilation space in a building where wires often run
Poly Vinyl Chloride
(PVC) A durable material used to make twisted pair cable sheaths, unfit for plenum space due to toxic fumes
Radio Guide
(RG) A World War II term that was used to designate coaxial cable varieties
SC
Fiber optic connector; multi or single mode, snap-in, square, 2.5 mm core
Shielded
Wires wrapped in metal coating to reduce interference from EMI and RFI, the more shielding, the more expensive the wire
Single-Mode Fiber
A more expensive fiber optic cable made for long distance signal transfer
STC
Fiber optic connector; usually found in multimode application; circular, bayonet connector, 2.5 mm core
Unshielded
Wires twisted inside the sheath with no extra protection
#G
A number representing the generation of cellular transmission technology
Cable
Internet service that is typically delivered to the home on a coaxial wire offering average speeds of 15/1.5Mbps
Cellular
Wireless network that covers a wide area by transmitting signals from base stations; coverage extends a set radius from the base station
Dial-Up
The cheapest but slowest Internet connection available; realistically 56 kbps
Digital Subscriber Line
Broadband access that uses standard telephone lines for Internet access; distance limitation of user from telephone company
Fiber to the Node
A network distribution scheme that cable and DSL providers use that utilizes fiber optic and copper wiring to reduce cost
Fiber to the Premises
The broadband solution that brings optical fiber to the customer delivering very high data rates
Integrated Services Digital Network
The first service to offer voice and data communication on the same physical line, still widely used in Europe and East Asia
Internet Service Provider
(ISP) A company that provides access to the Internet
Line of Sight
Like a cellular data network, signals jump from tower to tower until landing at their destination
Satellite
As an internet service it is a broadband solution that sends data to geostationary satellites, high latency, but is surprisingly reliable
WiMAX
Wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standard
Automatic Private IP Addressing
Characterized by IP addresses in the 169.254.X.X range, computers use this addressing scheme when they are set use DHCP, but no DHCP server is available on the network
Classful Addressing
IP addressing that follows the subnet rules as outlined in RFC 791 where classes A-E exist and have specific subnet masks
Classless Addressing
IP addressing that splits subnets up according to the number of hosts or networks needed
Domain Name System
Port 53, the system that is in place to translate domain names to IP addresses and vice versa
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
A protocol designed to automatically assign attributes such as IP addresses to requesting hosts
File Transfer Protocol
Port 21, a protocol designed to transmit files across a network
Gateway
A type of router that route at the network level
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Port 80, the protocol that allows web browsers to present web pages to users
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure
Port 443, much like HTTP but all the traffic is encrypted through the use of the Secure Sockets Layer
Internet Message Access Protocol
Port 143, the protocol that allows users to access an email server via the Internet and a web browser to view and manipulate email
Internet Protocol Security
A protocol that encrypts and authenticates IP packets generated by applications
Internet Protocol Version 4
A commonly used protocol characterized by addresses with four parts each separated by a decimal (x.x.x.x), the number of publicly available IPv4 addresses expired in 2014
Internet Protocol Version 6
A newer protocol characterized by 32 hexadecimal characters separated in to sets of four by colons (aaaa:bbbb:cccc:dddd:eeee:ffff:0000:1111), this scheme allows for many more publicly accessible IP addresses, and includes built-in security measures unlike IPv4
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Port 389, a protocol used to access information structures (directories) over IP networks like the Internet
Loopback Address
An address that redirects traffic back to the host that it comes from, in IPv4 these all begin with 127.x.x.x
Open Systems Interconnect Model
A seven layer, reference only model used to explain the traffic flow of information across networks
Post Office Protocol Version 3
Port 110, an email protocol used to retrieve email messages from a server, many mobile devices use this to retrieve email
Protocols
Sets of rules outlined in IETF documentation explaining how network traffic should be handled by specific applications in specific situations
Remote Desktop Protocol
Port 3389, a protocol used to access a server that provides a virtual desktop environment to a client
Reserved Address
Sets of addresses reserved by the IETF and IANA for specific purposes such as private, experimental, and multicast addressing
Secure Or SSHFTP
The same as FTP but with added encryption to secure the data
Secure Shell
A remote access protocol, usually command line based, that allows a user to access and manipulate a remote machine over a secure channel
Server Message Block
Port 445, a protocol that provides access to shared files and resources like printers, Microsoft commonly uses this in its Active Directory systems
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Port 25, a protocol used by clients and email servers to send email messages
Simple Network Management Protocol
Port 161, a protocol used by network administrators that provides real-time monitoring of network hardware and systems
Static IP
An IP address that is manually configured so that it cannot change like one provided DHCP can
Subnet Mask
A group of four numbers that resembles an IPv4 address that usually contains some sequence of the number 255 (255.255.255.0), this number helps define what network a device belongs to
Subnetting
The process of creating subnets for an overall network structure
TCP/IP Model
A four layer model used to explain the traffic flow of information across networks, it is a more descriptive version of the OSI model that is actively maintained by the IETF
Telnet
Port 23, an unsecured, command line based, remote access protocol used to remotely connect to servers
Transmission Control Protocol
A protocol that is connection oriented utilizing handshakes to ensure data is properly delivered (web browsing)
User Datagram Protocol
A protocol that is connectionless, meaning that is sends data and does not check on its delivery (streaming media)