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103 terms

Psych Test

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In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was
salivation to the sound of a tone
For the most rapid acquisiton of a CR, the CS should be presented
shortly before the US
Some people are better than others at dettecting slight variations in the tastes of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of
difference thresholds
Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, tyhe loud noise was the
unconditioned stimulus
In a study at the University of Michigan, men and women donned either a sweater or a swimsuit and completed a math test while alone in a changing room. Wearing the swimsuit disrupted the math performance of
the women but not the men
As adults grow older, they are most likely to show a decline in their ability to remember
nonsense syllables
If all the following oncoming vehicles were traveling at the same speed, which would most likely be perceived as moving the most slowly
a train
Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way of facilitating
semantic encoding
Iconic memory refers to
photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenth of a second
Both the receipt of monetary rewards and the suspension of monetary fines most clearly serve as _____ reinforcers
conditioned
Intermittent reinforcement is associated with _____ acquisition and ______ extinction than continuous reinforcement
slower: slower
Which theory emphasizes that immediate gut-level feelings often precede and influence our moral reasoning
Haidt's social intuitionist theory
Current research on cognittive development indicates that
mental skills develop earlkier than Piaget believed
A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to encourage
secure attachment
People consume more ice cream when scooping it with a big scoop rather than a small
unit bias
When tethered to a mobile, infants learned the association between
kicking and the mobile's movement
By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lighting signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates
classical conditioning
Twenty-year-olds would most likely outperform 60-year-
olds on an art history exam in which they were asked to
list as many famous artist as possible
Research on obesity and weight control indicates that
once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our wight than we did to attain it
Research suggests that a memory trace is most likely to involve
synaptic changes
Compared with formerly depressed people, those who are currently depressed are more likely to recall their parents as rejecting and punitive. This best illustrates
mood-congruent memory
Research suggests that humans can most easily master the grammar of a second language
childhood
Retroactive interference refers to the
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material
Wei Dong was asked to memorize a long list of words that included "ship,effort, proffessor, and inquire." He later recalled these words as "boat, work, teacher, and question." This suggest that four original words had been encoded
semantically
Interposition is a cue for depth perception in which closer objects
obstruct our view of distant objects
The specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults ove long periods of time is known as the
set point
Left hemisphere damage to Wernicke's area most likely to contribut to
aphasia
Infantile amnesia is largely associated with a lack of ______ memory
explicit
As Sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filled a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddenly shrinking. This illustrates
size constancy
Depth perception that uses information transmitted to only one eye depends on
monocular cues
The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behaivor is called
shaping
If the heritability of intelligence within both group A and group B is 100 percent, differences in average intelligence between these groups might reslut from
any of these situations
According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ____ stage
conventional
An event that decreases the behaivor that precedes it is a
punishment
Hunger controls are located within the brain's
hypothalamus
Research inidcates that we have a receptor for a seeming fifth taste sensation, the meaty taste of
umami
Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus is known as
sensory adaptation
The principles of continuity and closure best illustrates the importance of
top-down processing
Research on fat cells indicates that
they increase in number as a result of adult overeating patterns
In one experiment, preschool children judged french fries as tasting better when served in McDonalds bag rather than a plain white bag. This best illustrates the impact of
perceptual set
It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old. This best illustrates the importance of
maturation
An irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of one's normal reasoning and memory skills is called
Alzheimer's disease
The perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that are near eacch other is called
proximity
Blood glucose levels are regulated by secretions of ____ by the pancreas
insulin
Thousands of controlled experiments indicate that
there is no reliable evidence that anyone possessess ESP
According to Chomsky, the fact that young children generate all sorts of sentences they have never heard before suggest that
language skills are not developed simply through the processes of imitation and reinforcement
The French government commissioned Binet to develop an intelligence test that would
reduce the need to rely on teachers subjectively biased judgemtns of students learning potential
Designing aircraft instrument displays so as to minimize pilot's misperception of flight data would be most direct interest to
human factors pyschologist
The often unconscious activation of paricular associations in memory is called
priming
The tendency for distributed study to yeild to better long-term retention than massed study is known as
the spacing effect
The role of central nervous system activity for the experience of pain is best highlighted
Phantom limb sensations
The intelligence scores of adopted children are LEAST likely to correlate positively with the intelligence scores of their
adoptive parents
The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the rods and cones, is the
retina
Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation
a trim female figure imperceptibly flashed on the TV screen during an ad for a wight-reduction clinic
A cochlear implant would be most helpful for those who suffer
sensorineural hearing loss
Compared with rods, cones are
less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail
Chimpanzees are capable of learning to
do all of these things
Julio's mother has been giving him gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night. After about a week, Julio discontinued his habit of wetting the bed. His change in behaivor best illustrates
primary reinforcemnt
Two characteristics of authoritative parents are that they provide children with
clear behaivor expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness
A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the "Power Rangers" illustrate the role of a television source of
observational learning
A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only
unpredictable number of responses have been made
If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in mouth, the UR is the
salivation to the food in the mouth
On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items
in the middle of the list
The tendency to see complete letters on a neon sign, even though some of the bulbs are burned out, illustrates the principle of
closure
Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of
self-awareness
The Ames illusion involving two girls who are perceived as very different in size can best be explained in terms of
the misperception of distance
Hair cells line the surfce of the
basilar membrane
The nerve cells that respond to specific aspects of a visual stimulus, such as its shape or its movement,a re
feature detectors
The widespread improvemnt in intelligence test performance during the past century is called
The Flynn effect
The use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of
chunking
Tinnitus is a phantom ______ sensation
auditory
Evidence that organisms are biologically predisposed to learn the assosciations that most readily aid their survial has been provided by
Garcia and Koelling's study of taste aversion in rats
Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ingnition key to start their parents cars. This best illustrates the importance of
observational learning
Prolonged exposure to TV violence leads viewers to experience
less sympathy for victims of violence and to become less upset by the sight of real-life violence
The ability of preschool children to empathize with classmates who are feeling sad illustrates that preoperational children have developed
a theory of mind
Mr. Schelenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionaly sending notes of appreciation to his hard-working employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of
operant conditioning
Informationlearned while a person is _____ is best recalled when that person is ____
drunk; drunk
The prolonged stress of sustained physical abuse may inhibit memory formation by shrinking the
hippocampus
Higher intelligence scores are positively correlated with the volume of _____ in specific brain areas involved in memory, attention, and language
gray matter
The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulation that a person needs to detect a stimulus
50 percent pf the time
The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter
dopamine
Compared with men, women are ____ likely to iniate sex and ____ likely to think about sex
less; less
After four years of working nights, Raymod now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption of his normal
circadian rhythm
The unreliabilty of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of
structuralism
In 1982 and several times after that researchers had male and female student research assitants at Florida State Univerity sexually proposition an attractive person of the opposite sex. Their invitations were accepted by
half or more of the men but virtually no women
The survival of organisms best suited to a particular enviroment is known as
behaivor genetics
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are
less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion
Prozav is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter
serotin
Acetylcholine is neurotansmitter that
triggers muscle contractions
Twenty-two-year-old Felicia scores high in hypnotic responsiveness as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic. Susceptibility Scale. Research suggests that Felicia also have
a rich fantasy life
Joe decides to have elective surgery when his Dr. says that 95% of patients survive. But then another Dr. says 5% patients die from the surgery, and Joe decides to go against surgery. This is a reflection of
Framing
One reason people are more afraid of being killed by terrorist than in a car accident is
Availibiltiy
Imagine that individual differences within a population on a particular trait are entirely genetic. This means that differences on a trait between two different populations are entitely genetic in orgin
True
Careful analysis of the history IQ testing suggests that many US secientists
have had racial biases
The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the process of encoding and retieval involve
automatic processing
Susan's mother nags her incessantly to clean up her room, and when Susan does so, her mother stops harrassing her. Susan becomes better at cleaning her room on a regualr basis. Nagging in this case is
a negative punishment
Jim lives in a house with a faulty wiring. Every time someone rings the doorbell, the TV emits painfully loud static and shoots out hot sparks that burn Jim and the couch that he spends most of his time on. Eventually, just the sound of the doorbell by itself will make Jim
react in anticipation of a loud noise
In the previous case, the doorbell would be considered the:
conditioned stimulus
In the previous case, the painful static and red hot spark would be considered the:
unconditioned stimulus
Classical conditiong is most useful for teaching which of the following
a child to blink uipon hearing a whistle
Which area reaches adult levels of functioning and activation first
frontal lobes
Adolescent risk taking is highes when
with peers
The type of intelligence evidencing declines in later adulthood is called
fluid intelligence