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In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, a CR was

salivation to the sound of a tone

For the most rapid acquisiton of a CR, the CS should be presented

shortly before the US

Some people are better than others at dettecting slight variations in the tastes of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of

difference thresholds

Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, tyhe loud noise was the

unconditioned stimulus

In a study at the University of Michigan, men and women donned either a sweater or a swimsuit and completed a math test while alone in a changing room. Wearing the swimsuit disrupted the math performance of

the women but not the men

As adults grow older, they are most likely to show a decline in their ability to remember

nonsense syllables

If all the following oncoming vehicles were traveling at the same speed, which would most likely be perceived as moving the most slowly

a train

Rephrasing text material in your own words is an effective way of facilitating

semantic encoding

Iconic memory refers to

photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only a few tenth of a second

Both the receipt of monetary rewards and the suspension of monetary fines most clearly serve as _____ reinforcers


Intermittent reinforcement is associated with _____ acquisition and ______ extinction than continuous reinforcement

slower: slower

Which theory emphasizes that immediate gut-level feelings often precede and influence our moral reasoning

Haidt's social intuitionist theory

Current research on cognittive development indicates that

mental skills develop earlkier than Piaget believed

A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to encourage

secure attachment

People consume more ice cream when scooping it with a big scoop rather than a small

unit bias

When tethered to a mobile, infants learned the association between

kicking and the mobile's movement

By directly experiencing a thunderstorm, we learn that a flash of lighting signals an impending crash of thunder. This best illustrates

classical conditioning

Twenty-year-olds would most likely outperform 60-year-
olds on an art history exam in which they were asked to

list as many famous artist as possible

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that

once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our wight than we did to attain it

Research suggests that a memory trace is most likely to involve

synaptic changes

Compared with formerly depressed people, those who are currently depressed are more likely to recall their parents as rejecting and punitive. This best illustrates

mood-congruent memory

Research suggests that humans can most easily master the grammar of a second language


Retroactive interference refers to the

disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material

Wei Dong was asked to memorize a long list of words that included "ship,effort, proffessor, and inquire." He later recalled these words as "boat, work, teacher, and question." This suggest that four original words had been encoded


Interposition is a cue for depth perception in which closer objects

obstruct our view of distant objects

The specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults ove long periods of time is known as the

set point

Left hemisphere damage to Wernicke's area most likely to contribut to


Infantile amnesia is largely associated with a lack of ______ memory


As Sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filled a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddenly shrinking. This illustrates

size constancy

Depth perception that uses information transmitted to only one eye depends on

monocular cues

The process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behaivor is called


If the heritability of intelligence within both group A and group B is 100 percent, differences in average intelligence between these groups might reslut from

any of these situations

According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ____ stage


An event that decreases the behaivor that precedes it is a


Hunger controls are located within the brain's


Research inidcates that we have a receptor for a seeming fifth taste sensation, the meaty taste of


Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus is known as

sensory adaptation

The principles of continuity and closure best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing

Research on fat cells indicates that

they increase in number as a result of adult overeating patterns

In one experiment, preschool children judged french fries as tasting better when served in McDonalds bag rather than a plain white bag. This best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set

It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old. This best illustrates the importance of


An irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of one's normal reasoning and memory skills is called

Alzheimer's disease

The perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that are near eacch other is called


Blood glucose levels are regulated by secretions of ____ by the pancreas


Thousands of controlled experiments indicate that

there is no reliable evidence that anyone possessess ESP

According to Chomsky, the fact that young children generate all sorts of sentences they have never heard before suggest that

language skills are not developed simply through the processes of imitation and reinforcement

The French government commissioned Binet to develop an intelligence test that would

reduce the need to rely on teachers subjectively biased judgemtns of students learning potential

Designing aircraft instrument displays so as to minimize pilot's misperception of flight data would be most direct interest to

human factors pyschologist

The often unconscious activation of paricular associations in memory is called


The tendency for distributed study to yeild to better long-term retention than massed study is known as

the spacing effect

The role of central nervous system activity for the experience of pain is best highlighted

Phantom limb sensations

The intelligence scores of adopted children are LEAST likely to correlate positively with the intelligence scores of their

adoptive parents

The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the rods and cones, is the


Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation

a trim female figure imperceptibly flashed on the TV screen during an ad for a wight-reduction clinic

A cochlear implant would be most helpful for those who suffer

sensorineural hearing loss

Compared with rods, cones are

less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail

Chimpanzees are capable of learning to

do all of these things

Julio's mother has been giving him gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night. After about a week, Julio discontinued his habit of wetting the bed. His change in behaivor best illustrates

primary reinforcemnt

Two characteristics of authoritative parents are that they provide children with

clear behaivor expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness

A dramatic increase in children's violent play immediately after they viewed a video of the "Power Rangers" illustrate the role of a television source of

observational learning

A variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only

unpredictable number of responses have been made

If a ringing bell causes a dog to salivate because the bell has been regularly associated with food in mouth, the UR is the

salivation to the food in the mouth

On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items

in the middle of the list

The tendency to see complete letters on a neon sign, even though some of the bulbs are burned out, illustrates the principle of


Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of


The Ames illusion involving two girls who are perceived as very different in size can best be explained in terms of

the misperception of distance

Hair cells line the surfce of the

basilar membrane

The nerve cells that respond to specific aspects of a visual stimulus, such as its shape or its movement,a re

feature detectors

The widespread improvemnt in intelligence test performance during the past century is called

The Flynn effect

The use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of


Tinnitus is a phantom ______ sensation


Evidence that organisms are biologically predisposed to learn the assosciations that most readily aid their survial has been provided by

Garcia and Koelling's study of taste aversion in rats

Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ingnition key to start their parents cars. This best illustrates the importance of

observational learning

Prolonged exposure to TV violence leads viewers to experience

less sympathy for victims of violence and to become less upset by the sight of real-life violence

The ability of preschool children to empathize with classmates who are feeling sad illustrates that preoperational children have developed

a theory of mind

Mr. Schelenker has improved worker productivity at his furniture manufacturing plant by occasionaly sending notes of appreciation to his hard-working employees. Mr. Schlenker has improved productivity by means of

operant conditioning

Informationlearned while a person is _____ is best recalled when that person is ____

drunk; drunk

The prolonged stress of sustained physical abuse may inhibit memory formation by shrinking the


Higher intelligence scores are positively correlated with the volume of _____ in specific brain areas involved in memory, attention, and language

gray matter

The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulation that a person needs to detect a stimulus

50 percent pf the time

The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter


Compared with men, women are ____ likely to iniate sex and ____ likely to think about sex

less; less

After four years of working nights, Raymod now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption of his normal

circadian rhythm

The unreliabilty of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of


In 1982 and several times after that researchers had male and female student research assitants at Florida State Univerity sexually proposition an attractive person of the opposite sex. Their invitations were accepted by

half or more of the men but virtually no women

The survival of organisms best suited to a particular enviroment is known as

behaivor genetics

Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are

less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion

Prozav is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter


Acetylcholine is neurotansmitter that

triggers muscle contractions

Twenty-two-year-old Felicia scores high in hypnotic responsiveness as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic. Susceptibility Scale. Research suggests that Felicia also have

a rich fantasy life

Joe decides to have elective surgery when his Dr. says that 95% of patients survive. But then another Dr. says 5% patients die from the surgery, and Joe decides to go against surgery. This is a reflection of


One reason people are more afraid of being killed by terrorist than in a car accident is


Imagine that individual differences within a population on a particular trait are entirely genetic. This means that differences on a trait between two different populations are entitely genetic in orgin


Careful analysis of the history IQ testing suggests that many US secientists

have had racial biases

The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the process of encoding and retieval involve

automatic processing

Susan's mother nags her incessantly to clean up her room, and when Susan does so, her mother stops harrassing her. Susan becomes better at cleaning her room on a regualr basis. Nagging in this case is

a negative punishment

Jim lives in a house with a faulty wiring. Every time someone rings the doorbell, the TV emits painfully loud static and shoots out hot sparks that burn Jim and the couch that he spends most of his time on. Eventually, just the sound of the doorbell by itself will make Jim

react in anticipation of a loud noise

In the previous case, the doorbell would be considered the:

conditioned stimulus

In the previous case, the painful static and red hot spark would be considered the:

unconditioned stimulus

Classical conditiong is most useful for teaching which of the following

a child to blink uipon hearing a whistle

Which area reaches adult levels of functioning and activation first

frontal lobes

Adolescent risk taking is highes when

with peers

The type of intelligence evidencing declines in later adulthood is called

fluid intelligence

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