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EIWS COMMON CORE (115 Navy Space)

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115.1 Describe the following Space mission areas
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Terms in this set (11)
Space force enhancement: Multiplies joint force effectiveness by increasing the combat potential, operational awareness, and providing needed joint force support. There are five force enhancement missions: ISR, missile warning, environmental monitoring, satellite communications, and PNT

Space Support: The space support mission area includes space lift operations (launching and deploying satellites), satellite operations (maintaining, sustaining, and rendezvous and proximity operations), and reconstitution of space forces (replenishing lost or diminished satellites)

Space control provides freedom of action in space for friendly forces, and when directed, denies it to an adversary. It consists of offensive space control (OSC), defensive space control (DSC), and SSA

Space Force Application: DOD policy defines space force application as combat operations in, through, and from space to influence the course and outcome of conflict by holding terrestrial targets at risk
The Sun:
The sun has the biggest effect on the space environment. Fueled by nuclear fusion, the sun combines or "fuses" 600 million tons of hydrogen each second. Two by-products of the fusion process that impact space systems are electromagnetic radiation and electrically charged particles

Solar Wind:
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles ejected from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It mostly consists of electrons and protons with energies usually between 10 and 100 keV. These particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high kinetic energy and the high temperature of the corona

Solar Cycle:
Solar activity is cyclic in nature, following an 11-year cycle which is called the Solar Cycle. Generally there is a 4-year rise to a solar maximum, followed by a gradual 7-year decline to solar minimum

Van Allen Radiation Belts:
The Outer and Inner Van Allen Radiation Belts are two concentric, donut-shaped regions of stable, trapped charged particles. The Inner Belt has a maximum proton density approximately 5,000 km above the Earth's surface and contains mostly high-energy protons The Outer Belt has a maximum proton density at an altitude ranging from 16,000 to 20,000 km and contains low to medium energy electrons and protons

Energy deposited in the Earth's upper atmosphere by charged particle bombardment heats the atmosphere, causing it to expand outward over a period of time
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) - 150 to 800 Miles with a period of 90 minutes

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) - Altitude below 22,300 miles (Geostationary Orbit) and above the Low Earth. Covers more than LEO but requires more Satellites than Geostationary Orbit.

Highly Earth Orbit - Elliptic orbits of low-altitude perigee and high-altitude apogee (over 35,786 km) are of high earth orbits. These extremely elongated orbits have the advantage of long dwell times at a point in the sky during the approach to and descent from apogee. Visibility near apogee can exceed twelve hours of dwell at apogee with a much shorter and faster-moving perigee phase

Geosynchronous Orbit - A satellite placed in orbit with an average altitude of approximately 19,300 nautical miles (nm) will have an average angular velocity exactly equal to that of the Earth's. Stated more simply, the satellite would have a period approximately equal to one day (limitations of approximately 70° North and South of the equator)

Polar Orbit - A polar orbit passes over the entire surface of the Earth. A polar orbit has an inclination of 90° and is usually circular. Due to the ability to pass over the entire surface of the earth throughout the course of several days, the polar orbit is used extensively by imagery satellites