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22 terms

Chapter 18 - Exercise Science

STUDY
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Physical Development
The growth and development of the body's muscles, bones energy systems, and the nervous system
Cognitive Development
An individual's ability to interpret and process information; emotional development, or the development of a person's self-concept, or awareness of one's self
Motor or Skills Development
A combination of cognitive and physical development, whereby humans develop the ability to perform a wide range of tasks
Social Development
The development of relationships with peers, friends, relatives, adults, and other in the "outside world."
Chronological Age
Age measured in years, months and days; that is, the "standard" use of the term
Skeletal Age
Age as indicated by the physical maturity of the skeleton
Developmental Age
One's ability to perform certain tasks
Endomorphic Type
People with this body type fatty tissue and thicker body parts
Mesomorphic Type
Develop stocky, heavily muscled, broader bodies
Ectomorphic Type
Develop thinner bodies, narrow hips and longer limbs
Infancy/Toddler
Marks the time of the most marked growth in humans, weight increases 300%, height increase 50%, muscular development, considerable gains in their ability to perform basic tasks
Childhood (4 - 10)
Rapid growth rate, bone and tissue growth and development occurs --> motor skills
Puberty/Adolescence
Growth speeds up, physical and psychological changes occur
Adulthood (18+)
Most of the body's growth has taken place, large gains of weight, reduced capacity to take in and utilize oxygen, rise in blood pressure, rise in resting heart rate
Cephalocaudal Sequence
growth progresses fastest in the head, followed by the trunk, and then the extremities
Proximodistal Sequence
Describes body movements that originate close to the centre of the body seem to develop earlier than those that originate further away from the centre
Factors Affecting Physical Growth
Glandular/hormonal Activity, heredity, nutrition/diet, physical activity, sociocultural factors
Sensorimotor Stage
demonstrating intelligence by means of motor activity without the use of symbols, "object permanence" or the ability to use their memory to recall objects and events, physical mobility, development of early language skills
Pre-operational Stage
Children demonstrate intelligence through the use of symbols, such as letters, number, and pictorial representations of real-life objects, language abilities begin to develop considerably, "egocentric" thinking is prevalent during this stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Logical thinking develops, solve concrete hands-on problems in a logical fashion, "conservation", classify objects and put them into lists based on a standard criterion, logical sequences in reverse "reversibility" or "operational thinking"
Formal Operational Stage
Solve increasingly complicated abstract problems using logic
Socialization
the complex process whereby an individual learns to interact cooperatively with other in society - in families, schools, sports, churches, clubs