Chapter 3: Nomads, Territorial States, and Microsocieties

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Terms in this set (...)

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Ancestral Worship
Major belief in China; offering food/drink to deceased ancestors for intervention on their behalf.
Chariots
Two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicles used in warfare and in processions and races.
Divination
Applying intense heat to bones of cattle/turtle shells and interpreting the cracks that form.
Hammurapi's Code
Code of laws that was written in cuneiform, written for kings as a balancing act of how one should rule.


Began and concluded with rhetoric on paternal justice, 300 edicts addressing crime and punishment
Divided Mesopotamians into free people, dependents, and slaves, each with distinct rights, values and responsibilities
Microsocieties
Austronesian's, that expanded into the south pacific, and whose trade did not ingrate the islands into a mainland style culture.
Polities
City-states of the riverine societies organized around the temple and palace, were autonomous polities.
Territorial State
Exertion of power over distant hinterlands; an organized centralized kingdom ruled by charismatic rulers-people allied themselves with larger territories over small cities.
Transhumant migrants
Herder's that were living in close proximity to settled agriculturalists.
Vassal states
Weaker neighboring states that were forced to become allies that had to pay tribute with luxury goods, raw materials, and manpower for the protection of the ruler of the stronger state.
Vedic People
Aryans that wandered into inner Eurasia, descended into the Indus region, singing what would become sacred texts, and sacrificing livestock to their gods. Could speak sanskrit-basis for all other languages.
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Collapse of Old Kingdom Egypt
2200 BCE bc of climate change and drought
Phases in 2nd millenium BCE
2000-1600 BCE: small kingdoms, territorial and ethnic identities, Babylon and Egypt most powerful.

1600 BCE onward: nomadic migrations undermined new territorial states, then expansionist states.
Middle Kingdom Egypt
2040-1640 BCE: 350 years, new pharaonic line built on earlier foundations to increase the states' power.
13th dynasty of Egypt
Overthrown by the Hyskos, who became the 15th dynasty of Egypt
New Kingdom Egypt
1550-1069 BCE: defined itself as superior, cosmopolitan society with an efficient bureaucracy run by competent individuals
Anatolia
overland crossroads linking black and Mediterranean seas, combined pastoral life ways, agriculture, and urban commercial centers
Amorites
Conquered the city of Ur in 2004 BCE
Rise of Private Economy
city states dominated economy, ended with entrepreneurship and private ventures
Evolution of ruling class
Chieftain to King to King + Merchant Classes to Hereditary Royalty
Kassite Rules
Integrated themselves into Babylonian society as bureaucrats, took over S. Mesopotamia when the Hittites took the North
Presided over the golden age of trade with chariots, horses, and lapis lazuli.
Vedic People
Arrived with sanskrit, source for latin based languages, in the Indus River Valley. had domesticated horses and chariots made them militarily superior.
State Formation of the Shang People
Built on agriculture and riverine culture of the Longshan

Built on four elements: copper metal industry, pottery making, walled towns, and animal bones divination
What the Shang cultivated
Millet, wheat, barley, and rice with stone plows, spades, and sickles. They raised pigs, dogs, sheep, and oxen.
Rulers Wealth of the Shang
Depended on tributes from elites and allies. Elites were warriors and laborers, they gave horses and cattle. Allies sent foodstuff, soldiers, workers and assisted in Kings affairs, or gave divination shells.
South Pacific
People had seafaring skills, used double outrigger canoes.
Characterized by pigs, domesticated crops, stone tools and pottery
Aegean World
Innovations came from the east by the sea, Cyprus an important point of trade.
Minoan Culture
Had a female deity, significant regional diversity
Mycenaean Culture
Migrated from Greece to central Europe with language, chariots, and metalworking skills.
What caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and what other societies collapsed because of it?
Radical changes in climate; the Mesopotamians and the Indus Valley Civiliation
What revolutionary new military weapon was introduced by herders and pastoral nomads?
The horse -drawn chariot
What did the rulers and elitists of different civilizations call the nomads and pastoralists for their brutal use of horse-drawn chariots?
Barbarians
What were the most vital breakthroughs that the pastoralists brought with them?
The harnessing of horses and use of chariots
Pastoralists created the chariot; what did the Agrarians contribute?
Making them lighter, more durable, and more useful in war.
Other than war, what else did horse-drawn chariots improve?
Travel time between capitals
What is the difference between territorial states and city states?
The new territorial states based their authority on monarchs as oppos
What form of writing did the Mesopotamians use?
Cuneiform
When did King Tut rule?
The New Kingdom of Egypt
What was different between the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the Middle/New Kingdoms?
In the Old Kingdom, the pharaoh was a mighty ruler. In the Middle/New Kingdoms, the pharaoh's prime responsibility was to be a steward and fulfill the needs of his people.
What region did Egypt colonize to broaden their trade routes and secure coveted resources?
Nubia
How did Middle Kingdom Egypt end?
The Hyksos invaded. Though, they did not conquer Egypt- they ruled over it and improved it.
How long did the Hyksos rule?
A century.
How did the New Kingdom Egypt start?
Ahmosis used the Hyksos' weaponry against them and made himself Pharaoh.
What did the migrants and invaders from the west bring to Egypt with them?
Bronze working, an improved potter's wheel, and a vertical loom.
Why did the Egyptians want to colonize Nubia?
Gold, exotic materials and manpower.
Who was Egypt's most powerful woman ruler and what is her claim to fame?
Hatshepsut; she broadened trade into Nubia, the Levant and Mediterranean.
Which pharaoh commanded the first chariot battle in history, and what was its impact?
Hatshepsut's son, Thutmosis III; it established an Egyptian presence in Palestine.
Where is Anatolia and why was it so sought after?
Anatolia is located in modern-day Turkey; it linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea.
What ruined Mesopotamia's land productivity and what caused people to move?
A millennium of intense land cultivation combined with severe drought. Salt water entered the Euphrates from the Persian Gulf.
What was the name given to the people who conquered Mesopotamian cities?
Amorites
What did the Amorites eventually do in 2004 BC?
They brought down the Third Dynasty or Ur, and restored order, increased wealth, expanded trade, and founded new kinds of political communities.
What did restored order and prosperity enable the new kings of Babylonia to do?
Nourish a vibrant and cultural society through art and learning.
What is the most famous poem of this time period and who wrote it?
The Epic of Gilgamesh written by the Sumerians.



What industry powered trade from all over Afro-Eurasia?

Shipbuilding

Who was the most famous Mesopotamian ruler and what are they known for?

Hammurabi created Hammurabi's Code, which was the first known legal code ever established.

Where was Hammurabi's capital?

Babylon

How did the Code classify people?

Free people, dependents and slaves

What group took over Mesopotamia after the Hittites?

The Kassites

What group of nomads entered the Indus River Valley and what did they bring with them?
The Aryans (Vedic People) brought with them Sanskrit

What were the Aryans known for?
Being deeply religious

Where did the Aryans settle?
Near the Ganges River

What religion did the Aryans develop?
Hinduism

What two elements aided the Shang success?
Written records and new advances in metallurgy

Why didn't the chariot have as much success in China?
China was already intimidating enough to its neighbors. Chariots were not necessary.

Who defeated the Shang by using chariots?
The Zhou

What are the Shang known for creating and what made it so advanced?
A 12 month 360-day lunar calendar. It helped predict lunar and solar eclipses.

What are fiefs?
Grants of land given by kings and lords to subordinates

What type of government was the Shang dynasty?
A theocracy; the ruler gained his authority from the Mandate of Heaven

What is so special about the writing system of the Shang?
They created the character system that was later used in Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese.

What does "Polynesian" mean?
Belonging to many islands

Which group is usually seen in paintings with shirtless women and where are they located?
The Minoans; in modern-day Crete

Why was Cyprus a main focal point of trade?
It straddled the middle sea-lane, and was rich in copper.

Which city is considered the oldest city in Europe, who lived there, and where was it located?
Knossos was home to the Minoans. It was located in modern-day Crete.

Why were the Mycanaeans so intimidating, and what were they known for?
Their height and their wealth

What happened to the Minoan civilization on Crete?
It was invaded by the Mycenaeans

The chief political innovation that marked the formation of the territorial state was
political power reaching out from the city into the distant hinterland.

The Egyptian deity whom the Middle Kingdom rulers elevated to prominence as a king of the gods was
Amun

The Hittites established their dominance in Anatolia when they unified
the chariot aristocracies

Merchants in Mesopotamian kingdoms
sought to lower their risk by creating commercial rules and developing early forms of insurance.

Minoan culture mixed imported and indigenous influences. Which of the following represents an indigenous trait?
Worship of a female deity, known as the "Lady."

Mycenaean palace culture was dependent on
scribes, who recorded the goods and services allocated to local people.
How did restored prosperity impact the Mesopotamian economy?
It caused a shift away from economic activity dominated by the city-state and toward independent private ventures.
What were taxes paid with?
Grain, vegetables and wool.