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Function and cadences


tonic function chords

2, 4

subdominant/predominant function chords


dominant function chords


tendency tones


resolution tones

more active

How does function change when a 7th is added?

V-I, V7-I; all chords in root position and tonic chord doubles the root in soprano

perfect authentic cadence (cases; conditions)

V-I, vii^o6-I, V7-I, vii^/o7-I; either chord inverted, tonic chord has 3 or 5 in soprano or leading tone substituting for V

imperfect authentic cadence (cases; conditions)


plagal cadence ("amen")


deceptive cadence

ends with V or V^7, commonly preceded by IV, ii, ii^6, vi

half cadence

iv^6-V in harmonic minor

Phrygian half cadence

stronger pull to tonic (b/c of dominant function seventh chord)

effect of V7 in PAC

unresolved, typically used in the middle of a melody

half cadence characteristics

I (i), V (v), vi (VI)

the only three possible chords a cadence can end with

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