DAT biology

How to extract peripheral membrane protein from exterior of cell
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Terms in this set (73)
Muscles are made up of long chains of cytoskeleton comprised of ____________ and ___________actin and myosin actin - microfilament myosin - motor proteinSpindle fibers radiating from centrioles are _________________microtubuleslysosomes are organelles that are involved in ___________________phagocytosislysosomes are vesicles produced from the ______________ that contain digestive enzymes for breaking down _____________, ___________________, and _______________.Golgi nutrients, cell debris, and bacteriaphagocytosisExtracellular matrix consists of ______________ and ________________________ Structural proteins include _________, ________________ and ____________protein fibers and glycosaminoglycans collagen, proteoglycans, and fibronectinchromosomes are made up of _______________nucleic acids____________ are small short "hairs" called fimbriae on the surface of bacteria that can be used in the exchange of ____________ material between bacteria and cell ______________Pili genetic adhesionClathrina receptor protein on the surface of a cellNucleoidwhere bacteria is stored in bacterial cells because they do not have a nucleusTeichoic acidsfound only on gram-positive bacteria and help keep the cell wall rigidMeiosis Iduring the first stage of meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair at the equatorial plate and eventually migrate to opposite polesProphase I (of Meiosis I)nucleus disassembles, nucleolus disappears and nuclear envelope breaks downTransmission electron micrographvery strong 2D imageScanning electron micrograph3D image at extremely high magnificationNotochord eventually develops into ________________________part of the spinal discs begins as dorsal neural tube4 main features of chordates during development1. notochord 2. dorsal hollow nerve cord 3. pharyngeal gill slits 4. muscular post-anal tailWhich phyla doesn't have a complete digestive system?Platyhelminthes and Cnidaria Instead of a gastrovascular cavity (20way digestion)Platyhelminthes-Triploblasts -bilateral symmetry -acoelomate ex: flatworms, tapeworms, flukesNematoda-complete digestive system -triploblasts -bilateral symmetry -psuedocoelomates ex: roundworms, hook worms -parasitic -contain thick protective outer layer = cuticleRotifera-pseudocoelomatesAnnelida-complete digestive system -triploblasts -bilateral symmetry -coelomates -segmented bodies -closed circulatory systems ex: earthworms, leechesMollusca-complete digestive system -triploblasts -bilateral symmetry -coelomates -open circulatory systems (cephalopods have closed) -tongue = radula ex: clams, snails, squids, octopusesEchinodermata-complete digestive system -triploblasts -radial symmetry -coelomates -open circulatory systems -deuterostomes (like chordata) ex: starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbersCharacteristic UNIQUE to FungiFungi cell walls are made of glucans and chitinParistalsisform of muscle movement in the esophagus and intestine that is responsible for food motilityRefluxbackward motion through the digestive tracts -acid reflux disease is caused by the failure of the lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) which ordinarily prevents stomach acid from rising into the esophagusactive immunityimmunity where antibodies are generated by the individual themselves in response to a perceived immune threatpassive immunityimmunity where antibodies are generated by one individual and then transferred to another -breastfeedingnatural immunityan immune response is generated by natural means ex: recovery from an infectionartificial immunitywhen an immune response is generated by artificial means such as a vaccine where antigenic material is intentionally introduced to cause an immune responsePermanent immunitylike secondary response having been previously infected by a certain antigen such as a virus, the body will be able to quickly recognize and mount an immune response to the same antigen (much faster than during the initial exposure which results in primary response)Muscle cell that is in a sustained state of contraction is said to be in:tetanusOligodendrocytes are best associated with:white matter of the brain -responsible for laying down the myelin sheath surrounding neurons in the central nervous systemCentral nervous system includes:brain and spinal chordSchwann cells are best associated withlaying down myelin sheath surround neurons of the peripheral nervous systemThe main extracellular buffer system in humans consists of:bicarbonate -this is how CO2 is transported throughout the body the body uses pH sensors to determine how much we have to breathMain intracellular buffers inside cellsphosphate and other proteinsblood in the pulmonary vein would be best characterized as which of the followingHigh in O2Hormones derived from cholesterol:Aldosterone Cortisol - released by adrenal cortex & involved in stress adaptation Testosterone ProgesteroneEpinepherinea catecholamine, a class of peptide hormones -released from the adrenal medulla and sometimes referred to as ADRENALINE -functions in "fight or flight" response and raises blood glucose levels -causes vasoconstriction to internal organs and the skin -causes vasidilation to the skeletal muscles and increases the respiratory and heart ratewhy does cartilage take a considerable amount of time to heal?lacks a direct blood supplyIn mammals, which of the following structures aids the embryo in gas exchange and the disposal of liquid waste?AllantoisYolk sac in placental mammals:completely empty and contains no yolkAmnionfunctions to cushion the developing embryo -fluid-filled cavity of amniotic fluid that is notably absent from amphibiansChorionic Villifingerlike extensions from the chorion that contain capillaries where nutrients and oxygen are absorbed by the fetus from maternal bloodThe majority of the cytoplasm in a developing zygote is provided from where?Oocyte -the female egg that provides the majority of cytoplasm in a developing zygoteTo confirm genetic similarity or difference between organisms, which of the following biotechnology processes should be used?Gell electrophoresis -allows for the separation of DNA, RNA, or proteins on the basis of size and charge -if multiple samples are loaded, they can be compared to determine genetic similarities and differences -the DNA is cut up into pieces using a restriction enzyme -loaded into an agarose gel under an electric field for the separation of DNA based on charge and size -negatively charged DNA --> positive anode, away from neg cathodeHemophilia is a sex-linked recessive trait. A woman who is a carrier has a child with a non-hemophiliac male. What is the likelihood that they will have a son with hemophilia out of all possible children?25% if a carrier woman, XH Xh is crossed with a normal male, XH Y, their offspring will be XHXH. XHXh, XhY, and XHY. Out of all the children, there is a 25% chance that they will have a hemophiliac sonSex-linked genes travel on the ____ chromosome and are more likely to affect _______ than _____________.X males than females woman are carriers and phenotypically do not display signs of the trait/diseaseAll of the following processes results in GENETIC VARIATION EXCEPT for one. which is the exception?Linked genes (genetic variation includes: mutation, crossing over, meiosis, and independent assortment)Nondisjunction occurring during Meiosis II, followed by fertilization, would result in a zygote with which of the following chromosomal descriptions? a) aneuploid b) haploid c) diploid d) tetraploid e) disomicANEUPLOID -nondisjunction = the chromosome is not separated and instead, one of the resulting cells produced will have 2 copied of the same chromosome and one cell will be missing a chromosome Aneuploidy - the occurrence of having an abnormal amount of chromosomes (more or less than 23)WHich of the following are best characterized by BRACKISH waterA mangrove leading to an estuary (estuary=a specific area where freshwater meets saltwater) brackish=a mix between salt and fresh waterA species of desert plant secretes a chemical into the surrounding soil that kills seeds from any other species of plant that attempts to germinate in that area. What is this an example of?Allelopathy -a type of interference competition -the establishment of other individuals who would compete for a mutual resource is preventedcommensalism (symbiosis)one of the 2 organisms benefits while the other remains unaffectedExploitation competitiona type of competition that occurs indirectly through depletion of a common resourceApparent competitiona type of competition that occurs between two species preyed upon by the same predatorIntraspecific competitiona type of competition that occurs between members of the same speciesWhich biome is characterized as the largest biome on Earth with long harsh, snowy winters, short rainy and humid summers and with a landscape dominated by conifers?TaigaDeciduous forestbiome is characterized by cold (but not particularly harsh) winters, warm summers, and moderate levels of precipitation. It has deciduous trees that shed their leaves during the winterSavannasavanna biome is characterized by warm temperature year-round, with some small seasonal variation. There is very little precipitation in terms of rainfall, and the dry season can last many months each yearTundratundra biome is characterized by cold winters (to the point that the top layer of soil freezes). In the summer, the top layer thaws, but deeper soil (permafrost) remains frozen year-round. The summers are still relatively cold (generally average less than 50° F), and there is very little precipitation or vegetation;Chaparralchaparral biome is characterized by highly seasonal precipitation, with rainy winters and dry summers. The scattered vegetation in this biome consists primarily of shrubs, grasses, and herbs. Animals include deer and goats. The chaparral biome is found along the California coastline, and many California fires happen here